Williams’ taxonomy is a hierarchical arrangement of eight creative thinking skills conceived, developed, and researched by Frank E. Williams, a researcher in educational psychology .  The taxonomy forms the basis of a differentiated instruction curriculum model used with gifted students and gifted education .
The first four levels are essentially cognitive (thinking), while the last four levels are affective (feeling) in nature. 
The eight levels are: 
- Fluency , the generation of many ideas, answers, answers, possibilities to a given situation / problem;
- Flexibility , the generation of alternatives, variations, adaptations, different ideas / solutions / options;
- Originality , the generation of new, unique and novel responses / solutions;
- Elaboration , expansion, enlargement, enrichment or embellishment of ideas to make it easier to understand or make it more interesting;
- Risk-taking , experimenting, trying new challenges;
- Complexity , the ability to create structure out of chaos,
- Curiosity , the ability to wonder, ponder, contemplate or puzzle;
- Imagination , the ability to build mental pictures, visualizes possibilities and new things.
The Purposes of the taxonomy are to teach creative thinking skills, to encourage lateral thinking as well as proactivity , to foster creativity , and to Develop students’ creative talents qui peut être Transferred to the changing challenges faced in everyday life . 
- Jump up^ Williams, Frank E. (Dec 1969). “Models for encouraging creativity in the classroom by integrating cognitive-affective behaviors” . Educational Technology . 9 (12): 7-13.
- Jump up^ Williams, Frank E. (1993). “The cognitive-affective interaction model for enriching gifted programs”. In JS Renzulli. Systems and models for developing programs for the gifted and talented . Highett, Vic .: Hawker Brownlow. pp. 461-484.
- Jump up^ “Gifted and Talented Education; Extract from Support Package: Curriculum Differentiation; The Williams Model” (PDF) .
- Jump up^ “Assessing Creativity Test 21” .