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Scott Barry Kaufman

Scott Barry Kaufman

Scott Barry Kaufman (born June 3, 1979) is an American psychologist, author, and popular science writer known for his research and writing on intelligence and creativity. Most media attention has focused on Kaufman’s attempt to redefine intelligence. [1] [2] [3] Kaufman is Scientific Director of the Imagination Institute in the Positive Psychology Center [4] at the University of Pennsylvania . He is also co-founder of the Creativity Post [5] and author of “Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined”. [6] Kaufman won the 2011 Daniel E. Berlyne Award from Division 10 of the American Psychological Associationfor outstanding research on aesthetics, creativity, and the arts by a junior scholar, [7] and is a 2011-2012 recipient of the Mensa International Award for Excellence in Research. [8] He is listed on Business Insider as one of the “50 groundbreaking scientists who are changing the way we see the world”. [9]


After graduating from Lower Merion High School in 1998, Kaufman received his BS from Carnegie Mellon University , where he was Nobel Prize Winner Herbert A. Simon ‘s last research assistant, and a student of Randy Pausch . In 2005, he received his M.Phil. from King’s College, Cambridge under a Gates Scholarship , where he worked with Nicholas Mackintosh . After Cambridge, Kaufman earned his Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology from Yale University where he was mentored by Robert Sternberg , Jeremy R. Gray, and Jerome L. Singer. From 2009-2010, he was a post-doctoral fellow at theLeo Apostel Center for Interdisciplinary Studies .


Kaufman is the grandson of Philadelphia Orchestra’s trainer Harry Gorodetzer . [10] [11] [12]


Kaufman’s research focuses on the measurement and development of intelligence and creativity, with a consideration of implications for education, business, and society. Kaufman has over 40 scientific papers in numerous books and journals, including Cognition , Intelligence , and the Journal of Creative Behavior . He is also editor of The Philosophy of Creativity (with Elliot Samuel Paul, Oxford, 2014), The Complexity of Greatness: Beyond Talent or Practice (Oxford, 2013), The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (with Robert Sternberg , Cambridge, 2011), and The Psychology of Creative Writing (with James C. Kaufman, Cambridge, 2009).

The dual-process theory of human intelligence

Most theories of human intelligence and testing of intelligence and thought leadership. While Agreeing That Such thought processes are year major component of intelligence, Kaufman Argues That spontaneous forms of thinking Such As insight , imaginative play, daydreaming , implicit learning , and a Reduced latent inhibition sont également major contributors to a wide-range of Intelligent Behaviors as well as creative greatness. [13] [14] Integrating modern dual-process theories of cognition with research on human intelligence , Kaufman proposed the dual-process theory of human intelligence.[15] [16] [17] [18] The theory emphasizes the importance of adaptation to task demands of the essence of intelligent functioning. At the same time, the theory takes a wide range of intelligent behaviors in a wide range of fields, from the arts to the sciences. A key assumption of the theory is that the person is continually engaged in the behavior of the person. In Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined , Kaufman makes the point that his theory is also fundamentally developmental, because it looks like the dynamic interplay of commitment and ability over the pursuit of personal goals.[19] Under this conceptualization, personal characteristics such as passion, growth mindset , and persistence are also essential elements of human intelligence.



  • Wired to Create: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Creative Mind (with Carolyn Gregoire) (2015) New York, NY: Penguin Books. ( ISBN  0399174109 )
  • The Philosophy of Creativity (with Elliot Samuel Paul) (2014). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ( ISBN  0-199-83696-5 )
  • The Complexity of Greatness: Beyond Talent or Practice (2013) New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ( ISBN  0-199-79400-6 )
  • Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined (2013). New York, NY: Basic Books. ( ISBN  0-465-02554-4 )
  • Mating Intelligence Unleashed: The Role of the Mind in Sex, Dating, and Love (with Glenn Geher) (2013). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ( ISBN  0-195-39685-5 )
  • The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (with Robert J. Sternberg ) (2011). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ( ISBN  0-521-73911-X )
  • The Psychology of Creative Writing (with James C. Kaufman ) (2009). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ( ISBN  0-521-70782-X )


  1. Jump up^ Why We Need to Redefine Intelligence, Harvard IdeaCast Business Review, 13 June 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Redefining Intelligence, The Leonard Lopate Show- WNYC, 13 June 2013.
  3. Jump up^ Beyond IQ: 5 Ways to Reframe Success and Smarts, Fast Co.Create, 13 June 2013.
  4. Jump up^ Positive Psychology Center
  5. Jump up^ The Creativity Post
  6. Jump up^ Ungifted: Intelligence Redefined(2013). New York, NY: Basic Books. (ISBN 0-465-02554-4)
  7. Jump up^ Berlyne Award, Division 10, American Psychological Association,
  8. Jump up^ Awards for Excellence in Research winners, 2011-2012Mensa Education & Research Foundation
  9. Jump up^ Science (2015-07-14). “50 scientists changing the world” . Business Insider . Retrieved 2016-06-15 .
  10. Jump up^ Gates scholarship backs quest of L. Merion alum Studying at Cambridge. , The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 13, 2003.
  11. Jump up^ Genius Genes and Gusto: How Passions Find You, Psychology Today, 1 November 2009.
  12. Jump up^ Harry Gorodetzer, train Phila. Orchestra cellist. The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 23, 2002.
  13. Jump up^ Dreams of Glory, Psychology Today, March 2014.
  14. Jump up^ Why Daydreamers Are More Creative, Beautiful Minds, 27 February 2011.
  15. Jump up^ Kaufman, SB (2009). Beyond general intelligence: The dual-process theory of human intelligence (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation). Yale University, New Haven, CT.
  16. Jump up^ Kaufman, SB (2011). Intelligence and the cognitive unconscious. In RJ Sternberg & SB Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (pp. 442-467). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  17. Jump up^ Kaufman, JC, Kaufman, SB, & Plucker, JA (2013). Contemporary theories of intelligence. In J. Reisberg (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Psychology (pp. 811-822). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
  18. Jump up^ 6 Clues to Character, Psychology Today, December 15, 2011.
  19. Jump up^ Book Review – Ungifted: Redefined Intelligence,Creativity Post, June 14, 2013