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The arts

The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity in human societies and cultures . Major constituents of the arts include literature – including poetry , prose and drama , performing arts – among them music , dance , and theater ; and visual arts – including drawing , painting , photography , ceramics , sculpting, and architecture – the art of designing and constructing buildings.

Some art forms combines a visual element with performance (eg cinematography ) or artwork with the written word (eg comics ). From prehistoric cave paintings to modern day movies , art serves as a vessel for storytelling and conveying humankind’s relationship with the environment.


In its most basic abstract definition, art is a documentary expression of a medium that can be read, or hear it. The act itself of producing an expression can also be referred to as a certain art, or as art in general. If this solidified expression, or the act of producing it, is “good” or has value depends on those who access and rate it and this public rating is dependent on various subjective factors. Merriam-Webster defines “the arts” as “painting, sculpture, music, theater, literature, etc., considered as a group of activities done by people with skill and imagination.” [1] Similarly, the United States Congress, in the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act, defined “the arts” as follows: [2]

The term ‘the arts’ includes, but is not limited to, music (instrumental and vocal), dance, drama, folk art, creative writing, architecture and allied fields, painting, sculpture, photography, graphic and craft arts, industrial design, costume and fashion design, motion pictures, television, radio, film, video, tape and sound recording, the arts related to the presentation, performance, performance, and exhibition of such major art forms, all those traditional arts practiced by the various peoples of this country. (sic) and the study and application of the arts to the human environment.


Main article: History of art

In ancient Greece , all art and craft was referred to by the same word, techne . Thus, there was no distinction between the arts. Ancient Greek art brought the veneration of the animal form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features (eg Zeus ‘ thunderbolt). In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages , the dominance of the church in the field of biblical and not material truths. Eastern artA medieval art style, namely a concentration on surface patterning and local color (meaning the plain color of an object), such as basic red for a red dress, rather than the modulations of that color brought about by light , shade and reflection). A characteristic of this style is that the local color is often defined by an outline. This is obvious in, for example, the art of India , Tibet and Japan . Religious Islamic art forbids iconography, and expresses religious ideas through geometry instead.


In the Middle Ages , the Artes Liberales (liberal arts) Were taught in universities as share of the Trivium , an introductory curriculum Involving grammar , rhetoric , and logic , [3] and of the Quadrivium , a curriculum Involving the “mathematical art” of arithmetic , geometry , music , and astronomy . [4] The Artes mechanicae (consistant en vestiaria – tailoring and weaving ; agricultura– agriculture ; architectura – architecture and masonry ; militia and venatoria – warfare , hunting , military education , and the martial arts ; mercatura – trade ; coquinaria – cooking ; and metallaria – blacksmithing and metallurgy ) [5] . The modern distinction between “artistic” and “non-artistic” skills did not developRenaissance . In modern academia , the arts are usually subset of the humanities . Some subjects in the humanities are history , linguistics , literature , theology , philosophy , and logic .

The arts have also been classified as follows: Literature , painting , sculpture , and music including the arts; Drama is literature with acting , dance is music Expressed through motion , and song is music with literature and voice . [6]

Visual arts

Main articles: Visual art and Fine art
Further information: Plastic Arts and Work of Art


Main article: Drawing

Drawing is a way of making an image , using a wide variety of tools and techniques. It is a question of how to make a mark on a surface. Common tools are graphite pencils , pen and ink , inked brushes , wax color pencils , pencils, charcoals , pastels , and markers . Digital tools which can simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing, hatching , crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a drafter , draftswoman , or draftsman . [7] Drawing can be used to create art as illustrations , comics and animation .


Color is the essence of painting as sound is of music . Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, but these differences are different. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but elsewhere white may be. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe , [8] Kandinsky , [9] and Newton , [10] have written their own color theory . Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent. The word ” red, “For example, can cover a wide-range of variations on the pure red of the spectrum. There is not a Formalized register of different colors in the way That There is agreement is different note in music, Such As C or C #, ALTHOUGH the Pantone system is widely used in printing and design industry for this purpose.

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, for example, collage . This began with Cubism , and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters Incorporate different materials Such as sand , cement , straw , wood or strands of hair for Their texture . Examples of this are the works of Elito Circa , Jean Dubuffet or Anselm Kiefer . Modern and contemporary art HAS Moved away from the historic value of craft in favor of concept; this has had a serious role in the art of painting, but it has not been retained by the majority of artists in their work. Indigenism is also considered as Modern and Contemporary Art in early 20th Century.


Main article: Ceramic art

Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials (Including clay ), qui May take forms Such as pottery , tile , figurines , sculptures , and tableware . While some ceramic products are considered fine art , some are considered to be decorative , industrial , or applied art objects. Ceramics may also be considered artifacts in archeology.Ceramic art can be made by a person or by a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, manufacture, and decorate the pottery. Products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as “art pottery.” In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery . In modern ceramic engineering use, “ceramics” is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat. It excludes glass and mosaic made from glass tesserae .


Main article: Fine art photography

Photography as an art form refers to photographs that are created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer. Art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism , which provides a visual focus, and commercial photography, the primary focus of which is to advertise products or services.


Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and structures . The word architecture comes from the Greek arkhitekton , “master builder, director of works,” from αρχι- (arkhi) “chief” + τεκτων (tekton) “builder, carpenter”. [11] A broader definition would include the design of the built environment, from the macrolevel of town planning , urban design , and landscape architecture to the microlevel of creating furniture . Architectural design usually must address both feasibility andcost for the builder , as well as function and aesthetics for the user .

In modern use, architecture is the art and discipline of creating, or inferring an implied or apparent plane of, a complex object or system . The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of abstract things Such as music or mathematics , the apparent architecture of natural things, Such As geological gold formations the structure of biological cells , or Explicitly planned architectures of human-made things Such As software , computers , enterprises , and databases, in addition to buildings. In every usage, an architecture can be seen as a subjective mapping from a human perspective (that of the user in the case of abstract or physical artifacts) to the elements or components of some kind of structure or system, which preserves the relationships among the elements or components. Planned architecture manipulates space, volume, texture, light, shadow, or abstract elements in order to achieve pleasing aesthetics . This distinguishes it from applied science or engineering , which usually focuses on the functional and feasibility aspects of the design of constructions or structures.

In the field of building architecture, the skills of an architect from the more complex, such as a hospital or a stadium , to the apparent simpler, such as planning residential houses. Many architectural works can be seen as cultural and political symbols , or works of art. The role of the architect, though changing, has been established to the successful (and sometimes less than successful) design and implementation of pleasingly built environments in which people live.


Main article: Sculpture

Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts . Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modeling (the addition of material, as clay), stone , metal , ceramics , wood and other materials; but since modernism , shifts in sculptural process. A wide variety of materials can be worked by such as carving, assembled by welding or modeling, or molded , or cast .

Conceptual art

Main article: Conceptual art

Conceptual art is art in which the concept (s) or idea (s) involved in the work takes precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art [12] Through icts association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize During the 1990s, citation needed ] icts popular use, PARTICULARLY in the UK , Developed as a synonym for all contemporary art That does not Practice the traditional skills of painting andsculpture .

Literary arts

Literature is literally “acquaintance with letters” as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary . The noun “literature” comes from the Latin word littera meaning “an individual written character ( letter ).” The term has come to Identify Generally a collection of writings , qui in Western Culture are Mainly prose (both fiction and non-fiction ), drama and poetry . In much, if not all of the world, the artistic linguistic term can be oral as well, and include Such genres as epic ,legend , myth , ballad , other forms of oral poetry , as folktale . Comics , the combination of visual arts with narrating literature, are often called ” ninth art ” in French-speaking scholarship. [13]

Performing arts

Main article: Performing arts

Performing arts includes dance , music , theater , opera , mime , and other art forms in which a performance is the main product. Performing arts are distinguished by this performance in such a way that the performance is not limited to performance and performance. Each discipline in the performing arts is temporal in nature, meaning the product is performed over a period of time. They are broadly categorized as being repeatable (for example, by script or score) or improvised for each performance. [14] Artists who participate in these arts in front of an audience are calledperformers , including actors , magicians , comedians , dancers , musicians , and singers . Performing arts are also supported by the services of other artists or essential workers, such as songwriting and stagecraft . Performers often adapt their appearance with tools such as costume and stage makeup .


Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence, occurring in time. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture . The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music varies according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their reproduction in performance) through improvisational music to aleatoric pieces. They are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and sometimes controversial. Within “the arts,” music can be classified as a performing art , a fine art , and auditory art .


Main article: Theater

Theater or theater (from Greek theatron ( θέατρον) ; from theasthai , “behold”) [15] is the branch of the performing arts with acting in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle – indeed, any one or more elements of the other performing arts. In addition to the narrative standard dialogue style, theater takes such forms as opera , ballet , mime , kabuki , classical Indian dance , Chinese opera and mummers’ plays .


Dance (from Old French dancier , of unknown origin) [16] Generally Refers to human movement Either used as a form of speech or presented in a social , spiritual or performance setting. Dance est used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language ) entre humans or animals ( bee dance , mating dance), motion in inanimate objects ( the leaves danced in the wind ), and some musical forms goldgenres . Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who is called choreographer. People danced to relieve stress. citation needed ] Definitions of what are the social , cultural , aesthetic , artistic and moral constraints of such functional movements (such as Folk dance ) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet . In sports , gymnastics , figure skating and synchronized swimmingare dance disciplines while Martial arts ” kata ” are often compared to dances.

Multidisciplinary artistic works

Areas exist in which artistic works include multiple artistic fields, such as film , opera and performance art . While opera is often categorized in the performing arts of music, the word itself is Italian for “works,” because opera combines several artistic disciplines in a singular artistic experience. In a typical traditional opera , the whole work utilizes the following: the sets (visual arts), costumes (fashion), acting (dramatic performing arts), the libretto, or the words / story (literature), and singers and an orchestra ( music). The composer Richard Wagner recognized the fusion of so many disciplines into a single work of opera, exemplified by his cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen(“The Ring of the Nibelung”). He did not use the term opera for his works, but rather Gesamtkunstwerk(“synthesis of the arts”), sometimes referred to as “Music Drama” in English , emphasizing the literary and theatrical components which were important to the music. Classical ballet is one of the forms in the 19th century in which orchestral music is combined with dance.

Other works in the late 19th, 20th and 21st centuries-have fused other in single disciplines and creative ways, Such As performance art . Performance art is a performance over time that combines the number of instruments, objects, and art within a predefined or less well-defined structure, some of which can be improvised. Performance art can be scripted, unscripted, random or carefully organized; even audience participation may occur. John Cage is regarded by many as a performance artist rather than a composer, although he preferred the latter term. He did not compose for traditional ensembles. Cage’s composition Living Room Music A quartet of instruments, really non-melodic objects, which can be found in a living room of a typical house, hence the title.

Other arts

There is no clear line between art and culture . Cultural fields like gastronomy are sometimes considered as arts. [17]

Applied arts

Main article: Applied arts

The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday, functional, objects to make them aesthetically pleasing. [18] The applied arts includes fields such as industrial design, illustration, and commercial art. [19]The term “applied art” is used in distinction to the fine arts, where the latter is defined as to provide a stimulus for the purpose of stimulation. In practice, the two often overlap.

Video games

See also: Video games as an art form

A debate exists in the fine arts and video game cultures over whether video games can be ‘counted as an art form. [20] Game designer Hideo Kojima professes that video games are a type of service, not an art form, because they are meant to entertain and attempt to entertain as many people as possible, rather than being a single artistic voice (despite Kojima himself being considered a gaming author, and the mixed opinions his games typically receive). However, it is possible that they can not be considered as museum designers, but they may not be considered to be museum curators – not creating artistic pieces, but arranging them in a way that displays their artistry and sells tickets.

The social sciences, cultural economists, show how to play video games, and the use of video games, which suggests the complementarity between video games and the arts. [21]

In May 2011, the National Endowment of the Arts included video games in its redefinition of what is considered a “work of art” when applying a grant. [22] In 2012, the Smithsonian American Art Museum presented an exhibit, The Art of the Video Game . [20] The exhibition of the exhibition is in question.

Arts criticism

  • Architecture criticism
  • Visual art criticism
  • Dance criticism
  • Movie criticism
  • Music criticism
  • Television criticism
  • Theater criticism

See also

  • Fine art
  • Martial arts
  • Arts education


  1. Jump up^ “Definition of The Arts” . Merriam-Webster . Retrieved May 14, 2017 .
  2. Jump up^ Van Camp, Julie (November 22, 2006). “Congressional definition of” the arts ” ” . PHIL 361I: Philosophy of Art . California State University, Long Beach . Retrieved October 28, 2016 .
  3. Jump up^ Onions, C. T; Friedrichsen, George Washington Salisbury; Burchfield, Robert William (1991). The Oxford dictionary of English etymology . Oxford: at The Clarendon Press. p. 994.ISBN  0198611129 .
  4. Jump up^ ” Quadrivium “. The New International Encyclopædia . Wikisource . 1905. “The Quadrivium of Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, and Astronomy.”
  5. Jump up^ In his commentary on Martianus Capella’s early fifth century work,The Marriage of Philology and Mercury, one of the main sources for medieval liberal arts
  6. Jump up^ Rowlands, Joseph; Landauer, Jeff (2001). “Esthetics” . Importance of Philosophy . Retrieved October 28, 2016 .
  7. Jump up^ “The definition of draftsman” . Dictionary.com . Retrieved October 29, 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Ribe, Neil; Steinle, Friedrich (July 1, 2002). “Exploratory Experimentation: Goethe, Land, and Color Theory” . Physics Today . 55 (7): 43-49. Bibcode : 2002PhT …. 55g..43R . doi :10.1063 / 1.1506750 . ISSN  0031-9228 .
  9. Jump up^ Düchting, Hajo; Kandinsky, Wassily (2012). Wassily Kandinsky, 1866-1944: a revolution in painting . Taschen. p. 68.ISBN  9783836531467 . OCLC  772098057 .
  10. Jump up^ Ball, Walter William Rouse (1908). A short account of the history of mathematics . London: Macmillan. p. 325. OCLC  645107161 .
  11. Jump up^ Harper, Douglas (2001-2016). “architect (n.)” . Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved October 29, 2016 .
  12. Jump up^ “Conceptual art” . Tate . Retrieved May 14, 2017 .
  13. Jump up^ Miller, Ann (2007). Reading comic strip: critical approaches to French-language comic strip . p. 23. ISBN  9781841501772 . OCLC  939254581 .
  14. Jump up^ Honderich, Ted (2006). The Oxford companion to philosophy . Oxford University Press. doi : 10.1093 / acref / 9780199264797.001.0001 . ISBN  9780199264797 . OCLC  180031201 .
  15. Jump up^ Harper, Douglas (2001-2016). “theater (n.)” . Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved October 29, 2016 .
  16. Jump up^ Harper, Douglas (2001-2016). “dance (n.)” . Online Etymology Dictionary . Retrieved October 29, 2016 .
  17. Jump up^ http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/new-face-french-gastronomy/
  18. Jump up^ “applied art” inThe Oxford Dictionary of Art. Online edition. Oxford University Press, 2004. www.oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  19. Jump up^ http://www.dictionary.com/browse/applied-art
  20. ^ Jump up to:b Parker, Felan (December 12, 2012). “An Art World for Artgames” . Loading .. . 7 (11). ISSN  1923-2691 .
  21. Jump up^ Borowiecki, Karol J .; Prieto-Rodriguez, Juan (2015). “Video Games Playing: A substitute for cultural consumptions?” . Journal of Cultural Economics . 39 (3): 239-258.
  22. Jump up^ National Endowment for the Arts