Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts ( artworks ), expressing the author’s imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. [1] [2] In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art.

The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts , qui include establishment of pictures or objects in fields today Including painting, sculpture, printmaking , photography, and other visual media.

Architecture is often included as one of the visual arts; However, like the decorative arts , or advertising, [3] it involves the creation of objects where the practical considerations of use are essential-in a way that they are usually not in a painting, for example.

Music, theater, film, dance, and other performing arts , as well as literature and other media Such As Interactive Media , are included in a Broader definition of art or the arts . [1] [4] Until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and not differentiated from crafts or sciences .

In modern use after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts .

Art can be characterized in terms of mimesis , narrative, expression, communication of emotion, or other qualities. During the Romantic period , art came to be seen as “a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science”. [5]

Though the definition of what art is deriving their disputed [6] [7] [8] and Has Changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency [9] and Creation. [10]

The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of theory known as aesthetics . [11]

Creative art and fine art

Works of art can tell stories or simply express an aesthetic truth or feeling. Panorama of a section of Li Thousand of Mountains and Rivers , a 12th-century painting by Song dynasty artist Wang Ximeng .

In the perspective of the history of art, [10] artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art ; however, some theories restrict the concept of “artistic works” to modern Western societies. [12] One early sense of the definition of art is closely related to the Latin meaning, which roughly translates to “skill” or “craft,” as associated with words such as “artisan.” English words derived from this meaning include artifact , artificial , artifice , medical arts , and military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, with some relationship to its etymology .

Plato and Aristotle on the question of the importance of art, with Aristotle strongly supporting art in general and Plato being opposed to its relative importance.

Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses , and is not rational. He speaks approvingly of this, and other forms of divine madness (drunkenness, eroticism, and dreaming) in the Phaedrus (265a-c), and yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer’s great poetic art, and laughter as well. In Ion , Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer that he expresses in the Republic . The dialogue Ion Suggests That Homer ‘s Iliadfunctioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted.

With regard to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry , tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner. [13] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, and imitates dance with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation-through narrative or character, through or change, and through drama or no drama. [14]Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and one of mankind’s advantages over animals. [15]

The second, and more recent, sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. [16] Fine art refers to a skill used by the artist’s creativity, or to engage the audience’s aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art.

Within this context, the word art can refer to: (i) a study of a creative skill, (ii) audience’s experience with the creative skill. The creative arts ( art as discipline) are a collection of disciplines qui Produce artworks ( art as objects) That are Compelled by a personal drive (art as activity) and Convey the message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret (as art experience). Art is something that stimulates an individual’s thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be made for this purpose or on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such asKant , the sciences and the arts as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.

Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes considered applied art . Some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. [17] However, fine art often has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression. The purpose of art works may be to communicate ideas, such as politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art; to create a sense of beauty (see aesthetics); to explore the nature of perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions . The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent.

The nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as “one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture”. [18] Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating formal elements for their own sake, and as mimesis or representation . Art as mimesis has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle . [19] Leo Tolstoy identified art as an indirect means of communication. [19] Benedetto Croce and RG Collingwood advanced the idealistview that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art seems to exist in the mind of the creator. [20] [21] Immanuel Kant , The theory of art in the form of his roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant , Roger Fry and Clive Bell . More recently, thinkers influenced by Martin Heidegger have developed art for the medium of self-expression and interpretation. [22] George Dickie has offered an institutional theory of artThat was olefins work of art As Any artifact upon qui a qualified person or persons acting On Behalf of the social institution Commonly Referred to as “the art world ” has conferred “the status of candidate for appreciation”. [23] Larry Shiner has described fine art as “not an essence or a fate but something we have made.” Art as we understand it is a European invention barely two hundred years old. ” [24]


Sculptures, cave paintings , rock paintings and petroglyphs from the Upper Paleolithic dating to roughly 40,000 years ago, [25] but the meaning of such art is often disputed because it is known about the cultures that produced them. The oldest art objects in the world-a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,000 years old-were discovered in a South African winery. [26] Containers that may have been used as long as 100,000 years ago. [27] Etched shells by Homo erectus from 430,000 and 540,000 years ago were discovered in 2014. [28]

Many great traditions in art-have a foundation in the art of one of the great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt , Mesopotamia , Persia , India, China, Ancient Greece, Rome, as well as Inca , Maya , and Olmec. Each of these centers of early civilization has a unique and characteristic style in its art. Because of the size and duration of these civilizations, they are more important than others. Some also provided the first records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek art is a presentation of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty, and anatomically correct proportions.

In Byzantine and Medieval Art of the Western Middle Ages, much art focused on the expression of the subjects of Biblical and religious culture, and used styles of the higher glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which are also shown in idealized, patterned (flat) forms. Nevertheless, a classical realist tradition persisted in small Byzantine works, and realism steadily grew in the art of Catholic Europe.

Renaissance art had a highly augmented emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, and the development of a systematic method of graphical perspective to depict recession in a three-dimensional picture space.

The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in Islamic calligraphy . It reads Mahmud Khan’s sound of Abdulhamid is forever victorious .
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, also called the Mosque of Uqba, is one of the finest, most significant and best preserved artistic and architectural examples of early great mosques. Dated in its present state from the 9th century, it is the ancestor and model of all the mosques in the western Islamic lands. [29]

In the east, Islamic art’s rejection of iconography , calligraphy , and architecture . Further east, religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw painting on the subject of sculpture and dance, while religious painting borrowed many conventions from sculpture and tended to bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw the flourishing of many art forms: carving jade, bronzework, pottery (including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin), poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles vary greatly from one another to one traditionally after the ruling dynasty. So, for example,Tang dynasty paintings are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but the dynasty paintings are busy and colorful, and focus on telling stories via setting and composition. Japan names its styles after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of calligraphy and painting. Woodblock printing became important in Japan after the 17th century.

The western Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century saw the visions of a post-monarchist world, such as Blake’s portrayal of Newton as a divine geometer, or David ‘s propagandistic paintings. This led to Romantic rejections of this in favor of pictures of the emotional side and individuality of humans, Exemplified in the novels of Goethe . The late 19th century then saw a host of artistic movements, such as academic art , Symbolism , impressionism and fauvism among others.

The history of twentieth-century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Thus the parameters of impressionism , Expressionism , Fauvism , Cubism , Dadaism , Surrealism , etc. can not be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art. Thus, Japanese woodblock prints (influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship) had an immense influence on impressionism and subsequent development. Later, African sculptureswere taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse . Similarly, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the West has had a great impact on Eastern Europe with the idea of ​​a Communist and Post-Modernism .

Modernism , the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability. Theodor W. Adorno said in 1970, “It is now taken for granted that nothing can be said about art can be taken for granted: neither art itself, nor art in relation to the whole, nor even the right of art to exist.” [30] Relativism Was accepted as an unavoidable truth, qui led to the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism , Where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, qui peut être appreciated and drawn from only with skepticismand irony. Furthermore, the separation of cultures is more important than that of a global culture, rather than of regional ones.

Forms, genres, media, and styles

The creative arts are typically divided into more specific categories, typically along with perceptually distinguishable categories such as media , genre, styles , and form. [31] Art form refers to the elements of art that are independent of its interpretation or significance. It covers the methods adopted by the artist and the physical composition of the artwork, mainly non-semantic aspects of the work (ie, figurae ), [32] such as color , outline , dimension , medium , melody , space , texture, and value . Form may also include visual design principles , such as arrangement, balance , contrast , emphasis , harmony , proportion , proximity , and rhythm. [33]

In general there are three schools of philosophy regarding art, [33] Extreme Formalism is the view that all aesthetic properties of art are formal (that is, part of the art form). Philosophers almost universally reject this view and hold that the properties and aesthetics of art extend beyond materials, techniques, and form. [34] Unfortunately, there is little consensus on terminology for these informal properties. Some authors Refer to subject matter and content – ie, denotations and connotations – while others prefer terms like meaning and significance . [33]

Extreme Intentionalism holds that authorial intent plays a decisive role in the meaning of a work of art, conveying the content or essential idea, while all other interpretations can be discarded. [35] It defines the subject as the persons or idea represented, [36] and the content as the artist’s experience of that subject. [37] For example, the composition of Napoleon’s Imperial Throne is partly borrowed from the Statue of Zeus at Olympia . As evidenced by the title, the subject is Napoleon , and the content is Ingres ‘ s representation of Napoleon as “Emperor-God beyond time and space”. [33]Similarly to extreme formalism, philosophers typically reject extreme intentionalism, because art may have multiple ambiguous meanings and authorial intent may be unknowable and thus irrelevant. Its restrictive interpretation is “socially unhealthy, philosophically unreal, and politically unwise”. [33]

Finally, the developing theory of post-structuralism studies art’s significance in a cultural context, such as the ideas, emotions, and reactions prompted by a work. [38] The cultural context often reduces to the artist’s techniques and intentions, in which case analysis works along lines similar to formalism and intentionalism. However, in other cases, historical and social conditions, and socio-economic conditions, or even climate and geography. Art criticism continues to grow and develop art. [33]

Skill and craft

Art can connote a sense of a learned ability or mastery of a medium . Art can simply également Refer to the Developed and efficient use of a language to Convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art can be defined as an act of expressing feelings, thoughts, and observations. [39]

There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of handling it, which facilitates one’s thought processes. A common view is that the epithet “art”, in its elevated sense, requires a certain level of creative expertise by the artist, whether this be a demonstration of technical ability, an originality in stylistic approach, or a combination of these two. Traditionally it is required for the success of its success; for Leonardo da Vinci , art, no more than his other endeavors, was a manifestation of skill. Rembrandt’s work, now praised for its ephemeral virtues, was most admired by its contemporaries for its virtuosity. At the turn of the 20th century, the adroit performances of John Singer Sargent Were Alternately Admired and viewed with skepticism for Their manual fluency, yet at Nearly la même time the artist Who Would Become the era’s Most reconnu and peripatetic iconoclast, Pablo Picasso , Was where he excelled.

A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the lines of objecting to the apparent lack of skill or ability required in the production of the artistic object. In conceptual art, Marcel Duchamp ‘s ” Fountain ” is among the first examples of the art of the artist used found objects (“ready-made”) and has not been traditionally recognized. Tracey Emin ‘s My Bed , or Damien Hirst ‘s The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Livingfollow this example and also manipulate the mass media. Emin slept (and other activities) in the gallery. Hirst came up with the conceptual design for the artwork. Hirst’s celebrity is based entirely on his ability to produce shocking concepts. The actual production in many conceptual and contemporary works of art is a matter of assembly. However, there are many modernist and contemporary artists who continue to excel in the skills of drawing and painting and creating hands-on works of art.


Art history of making history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single concept. This does not imply that the purpose of Art is “vague”, but it has had many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of these functions of Art are provided in the following outline. The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those that are non-motivated, and those that are motivated (Levi-Strauss).

Non-motivated functions

The non-motivated purposes of art are those which are integral to being human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external purpose. In this sense, Art, as creativity, is something humans must do by their very nature (ie, no other species creates art), and is hence beyond utility.

  1. Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm . Art at this level is not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance and harmony (beauty), and therefore an aspect of being human beyond utility.

    “Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature.” “Here, there is the instinct for” harmony “and” rhythm, “being meters of rhythm, so that they are able to meet their specific needs. rough improvisations gave birth to Poetry. ” -Aristotle [40]

  2. Experience of the mysterious. Art provides a way to experience one’s self in relation to the universe. This experience can often be unmotivated, as one appreciates art, music or poetry.

    “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious, it is the source of all true art and science.” Albert Einstein [41]

  3. Expression of the imagination. Art provides a means to express the imagination in non-grammatical ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or written language. The translation of the words, which provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with which they are malleable.

    “Jupiter’s eagle [as an example of art] is not, like logical (aesthetic) attributes of an object, the concept of the sublimity and majesty of creation, but rather something else-something that gives the imagination an incentive to spread its flight over These are the ideas that are used to describe the concept of the subject, but they do not provide a sense of concept, but they do not provide a logical representation of the subject. the mind by opening out for a field of kindred representations stretching beyond its ken. ” -Immanuel Kant [42]

  4. Ritualistic and symbolic functions. In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol. While these often have specific purpose (motivated) purpose, they are often useful for a particular culture. This term is not furnished by any individual, but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a cosmological relationship within the culture.

    “Most scholars who deal with rock paintings or objects recovered from prehistoric contexts that can not be explained in a practical way and are categorized as decorative, ritual or symbolic, are aware of the trap posed by the term ‘art’.” -Silva Tomaskova [43]

Motivated functions

Motivated aims of art refer to intentional, conscious actions on the part of the artists or creator. These may be to bring about political change, to a particular aspect of society, to a specific emotion, to a different form of discipline, to (with commercial arts) a product, or simply as a form of communication.

  1. Communication. Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an aim or goal directed towards another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication. Maps are another example. However, the content need not be scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art.

    “[Art is a set of] artifacts or images with symbolic meanings as a means of communication.” -Steve Mithen [44]

  2. Art as entertainment . Art can seek to bring about a particular emotion or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or entertaining the viewer. This is often the function of the art industries of Motion Pictures and Video Games. quote needed ]
  3. The Avante-Guard. Art for political change. One of the defining functions of early twentieth-century art. Art movements that had this goal- Dadaism , Surrealism , Russian constructivism , and Abstract Expressionism , among others-are collectively referred to as the avant-garde arts.

    “By contrast, the realistic attitude, inspired by positivism, from Saint Thomas Aquinas to Anatole France, I am at a disadvantage, I hate it, for it is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull It is this attitude that today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting plays. life. ” -André Breton (Surrealism) [45]

  4. Art as a “free zone” , removed from the action of social censorship. Unlike the avant-garde movements, which is a new generation of cultural products in the world of international relations, the art of socialization, activism, subversion, deconstruction … ), becoming more open for research and experimentation. [46]
  5. Art for social inquiry, subversion and / or anarchy. While similar to art for political change, subversive or deconstructivist art can seek to question aspects of society without any specific political goal. In this case, the function of art may be simply criticized by some aspect of society.
    Spray paint graffiti on a wall in Rome

    Graffiti art and other types of street art are graphics and images that are spray-painted or stencilled on public viewable walls, buildings, buzzards, trains, and bridges, usually without permission. Some art forms, such as graffiti, may also be illegal when they break laws (in this case vandalism).

  6. Art for social causes. Art can be used to raise awareness for a wide variety of causes. A number of art activities were aimed at raising awareness of autism , [47] [48] [49] cancer, [50] [51] [52] human trafficking , [53] [54] and a variety of other topics, such as as ocean conservation, [55] human rights in Darfur , [56] murdered and missing Aboriginal women, [57] elder abuse, [58] and pollution. [59] Trashion , using trash to make fashion, practiced by artists as Marina DeBris is one example of using to raise awareness about pollution.
  7. Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as art therapy . The Diagnostic Drawing Series , for example, is used to determine the personality and functioning of a patient. The end product is not the main goal in this case, but rather a process of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece of artwork may also be used as an example of a standard practice of psychiatric therapy.
  8. Art for propaganda, or commercialism. Art is often used as a form of propaganda, and thus can be used to subtly influence popular conceptions or mood. In a similar way, art that tries to sell a product also influences mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular emotional or psychological response to a particular idea or object. [60]
  9. Art as a fitness indicator. It has been argued that the ability of the human brain is far more important than ancestral environment. One evolutionary psychology explanation for this is the human brain and That associated features (Such As artistic Ability and creativity) are the human equivalent of the peacock ‘s tail. The purpose of the extravagant peaches is to attract females (see also Fisherian runaway and handicap principle ). According to this theory, the evolution of the art is evolutionary important because it attracted mates. [61]

The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many of them may overlap. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment, or the movie or video game.

Public access

Since ancient times, much of the finest art is represented by the deliberate display of wealth or power, often achieved by using massive scale and expensive materials. Much art has been commissioned by political rulers or religious establishments, with more modest versions only available to the most wealthy in society.

Nevertheless, there are many periods in which, where, and where, and where . In many different cultures, the ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas are found in such a wide range of seriousness that they were clearly not limited to a social elite , though other forms of art may have been. Reproductive methods such as molds made mass-production easier, and were used to bring high-quality Ancient Roman pottery and Greek Tanagra figurines to a very wide market. Cylinder sealswere both artistic and practical, and very widely used by what can be loosely called the middle class in the Ancient Near East . The corners of the world are also used to reach the widest range of society.

Another major innovation cam in the 15th century in Europe, When printmaking Began with small woodcuts , mostly religious, That Were Often very small and hand-colored and affordable Even by Peasants Who em glued to the walls of Their homes. Printed books were initially very expensive, but still steadily in price until the 19th century. Popular prints of many different spells have decorated homes and other places for centuries.

Public buildings and monuments , secular and religious, by their nature as a whole, and their viewers, and their presentation to the general public. Egyptian temples are the most popular and most popular places in the world by the general public, rather than the areas seen by the priests. Many areas of royal palaces, castles and the houses of the social elite are generally accessible, and large parts of the art collections of such people may be seen, or by anybody, or by those able to small price, or those wearing the correct clothes, regardless of who they were, at the Palace of Versailles, where the appropriate extra accessories could be hired from shops outside.

The collection was mostly housed in a wing of the Royal Palace in Paris, which could be visited for most of the 18th century. In Italy the art tourism of the Grand Tour became a major industry of the Renaissance onwards, and governments made efforts to make their key works accessible. The British Royal Collection remains distinct, but large donations such as the Old Royal Library were made from the British Museum , established in 1753. The Uffizi in Florence1765, although this function had been taking over from the original civil servants’ offices for a long time before. The building occupied by the Prado in Madrid was built by the Royal Museum for the public display of the royal collection, and similar royal galleries open to the public in Vienna , Munich and other capitals. The opening of the Louvre Museum during the French Revolution (in 1793) as a public museum for much of the French royal collection certainly marked an important stage in the development of public access to art, transferring ownership to a republican state, but was a continuation of trends already well established.

Most modern public museums and art education programs for children in schools can be traced back to this art. Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the rich to the masses. ( The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnston , a railroad executive of a personal art collection seeded the museum.) But all of this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century. century remains as a marker of wealth and social status.

There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought by the wealthy as a status object. One of the original motivators of much of the art of the late 1960s and early 1970s. It is “necessary to present something more than mere objects” [62] said the major post war German artist Joseph Beuys. This time period of art , video art , and conceptual art. The idea was that the artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold. “Democratic precepts on the idea of ​​a work of art is a product of the world of innovation, which is germinated in the mid-1960s and was reaped throughout the 1970s. for the purpose of engagement with both the material and the materialistic concerns of the painted or sculptural form … [an] endeavor to undermine the art object qua object. ” [63]

In the decades since, these ideas have been somewhat lost in the art market. DVDs of video works, [64]invitations to exclusive performance art pieces, and the objects left over from conceptual pieces. Many of these performances create works which are only understood by the elite who have been educated to the point of view of art. The marker of status becomes a part of the work, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. “With the widespread use of DVD recording technology in the early 2000s, artists, and the gallery system that derives its profits from the sale of artworks, acquired an important means of controlling the video and computer artworks in limited editions to collectors.” [65]


Art has long been controversial, that is to say disliked by some viewers, for a wide variety of reasons, although most pre-modern controversies are dimly recorded, or completely lost to a modern view. Iconoclasm is the destruction of art that is disliked for a variety of reasons, including religious ones. Aniconism is a general dislike of all figurative images, or often just religious ones, and has been a thread in many major religions. It has been a crucial factor in the history of Islamic art , where the depictions of Muhammadespecially controversial. Much art has been disliked simply because it has been depicted or otherwise considered for unpopular rulers, parties or other groups. Artistic conventions have often been conservative and taken seriously by art critics , though often much less so by a public audience. The iconographic content of art could cause controversy, with late medieval depictions of the new motive of the Swoon of the Virgin in scenes of the Crucifixion of Jesus . The Last Judgment by Michelangelo was controversial for various reasons, including breaches of decorum through nudity and the Apollo- like pose of Christ.

The content of the art is more than just the artist, but with the advent of Romanticism , and economic changes in the production of art, the artists’ vision became the usual determinant of the content of his art, increasing the incidence of controversies, though often reducing their significance. Strong incentives for perceived originality and publicity also encouraged artists to court controversy. Théodore Géricault ‘s Raft of the Medusa (c. 1820), Was in part in political commentary was recent events. Edouard Manet ‘s The Luncheon on the Grass (1863), regarded scandalous Was not Because of the nudewoman, but because she is well dressed in the clothing of the time, rather than in the dresses of the ancient world. John Singer Sargent ‘s Madame Pierre Gautreau (Madam X) (1884), has Caused controversy over the reddish pink used to color the woman’s ear lobe, regarded far too suggestive and supposedly ruining the high-society model’s reputation.

The gradual abandonment of naturalism and the depiction of realistic representations of the visual appearance of subjects in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso ‘s Guernica (1937) used to arrest cubist techniques and stark monochromatic oils , to depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Leon Golub ‘s Interrogation III (1981), depicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal her sexual organs, Surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano ‘sPiss Christ (1989) is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion andChrist’s sacrifice and final suffering, submerged in a glass of the artist’s own urine. The resulting Senate in the United States about the public funding of the arts.


Main article: Aesthetics

Before Modernism, aesthetics in Western art Was Greatly Concerned with Achieving the Appropriate balance entre different aspects of realism or truth to nature and the ideal ; ideas as to what is the appropriate balance. This is largely absent in other traditions of art. The aesthetic theorist John Ruskin , who championed what he saw in the nature of J. M. W. Turner , saw the role of communication in an art form. [66]

The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches to assessing the aesthetic value of art: the Realist , which is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist , which is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position , which is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans. [67]

Arrival of Modernism

The arrival of Modernism in the late nineteenth century leads to a radical break in the design of the function of art, [68] and then again in the late twentieth century with the advent of postmodernism . Clement Greenberg’s 1960 article “Modernist Painting” defines modern art as “the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself”. [69]Greenberg Originally Applied This Idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a way to understand and justify flat (non-illusionistic) abstract painting:

Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting-the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of the pigment-were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could only be implicitly or indirectly. These same limitations have been noted as positive factors, and have been acknowledged openly. [69]

After Greenberg, several important art theorists emerged, such as Michael Fried , T. Clark , Rosalind Krauss , Linda Nochlin and Griselda Pollock among others. Greenberg’s definition of modern art is important to many of the ideas of art within the various art movements of the 20th century and early 21st century.

Pop artists like Andy Warhol became more important and influential through work and critiquing popular culture, as well as the art world . Artists of the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s expanded this technique of self-criticism beyond high art to all-cultural image-making, including fashion images, comics, billboards and pornography.

Duchamp ounce that art is any activity of any kind- everything. However, the way that only certain activities are classified today as art is a social construction. [70] There is evidence that there is an element of truth to this. The Invention of Art: A Cultural History is an art history book which examines the construction of the modern system of the arts ie Fine Art. Shiner finds evidence that the older system of the arts before our modern system (fine art) is an ancient Greek society that does not possess the term art but techne . Techne can be the art or craft, the reason being that the distinctions of art and craftare historical products that came later on in human history. Techne included painting, sculpting and music purpose also; cooking, medicine, horsemanship , geometry , carpentry , prophecy , and farming etc.

New Criticism and the “intentional fallacy”

Following Duchamp during the first half of the twentieth century, a significant shift to general aesthetic theory took place between different forms of art, including the literary arts and the visual arts, to each other. This result in the New Criticism school and debate concerning the intentional fallacy . At issue is the question of whether or not the work of art is in the art, whatever its specific form, should be associated with the criticism and evaluation of the final product of the work of art, or, if the work of art should be evaluated on its own merits independent of the intentions of the artist.

In 1946, William K. Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley published a classic and controversial New Critical essay entitled ” The Intentional Fallacy “, in which they strongly argued against the relevance of an author’s intention , or “intended meaning” in the analysis of a literary work . For Wimsatt and Beardsley, the words on the page were all that mattered; import of irrelevant, and potentially distracting.

In another essay, ” The Affective Fallacy ,” which served as an attempt to “The Intentional Fallacy” Wimsatt and Beardsley also wrote a book on the subject. This fallacy would be repudiated by theorists from the reader-responseschool of literary theory. Ironically, one of the leading theorists from this school, Stanley Fish , was himself trained by New Critics. Fish criticizes Wimsatt and Beardsley in his essay “Literature in the Reader” (1970). [71]

As summarized by Gaut and Livingston in their essay “The Creation of Art”: “Structuralist and post-structuralists theorists and critics were sharply critical of many aspects of New Criticism, beginning with the emphasis on aesthetic appreciation and the so-called autonomy of art , but they reiterated the attack on biographical criticism’s assumption that the artist’s activities and experiences were a privileged critical topic. ” [72] These authors contend that: “Anti-intentionalists, such as formalists, hold that the intentions involved in the making of art are irrelevant or peripheral to properly interpreting art. in themselves, have no bearing on the correct interpretation of the work. ” [73]

Gaut and Livingston define the intentionalists as distinct from formalists stating that: “Intentionalists, unlike formalists, hold that reference to intentions is essential in fixing the correct interpretation of works.” They quote Richard Wollheim as stating that, “The task of criticism is the reconstruction of the creative process, where the creative process must be in the process of being”, but terminating on, the work of art itself. [73]

“Linguistic turn” and its debate

The end of the 20th century is a controversial issue, or the “innocent eye debate”, and the article refers to structural structuralism – poststructuralism debate in the philosophy of art. This discussion of the experience of the work of art is related to the extent to which the concept of encounter with the work of art dominates over the perceptual encounter with the work of art. [74]

The structure of Ferdinand de Saussure and the ensuing movement of poststructuralism . In 1981, the artist Mark Tansey created a work of art titled “The Innocent Eye” as a criticism of the prevailing climate of disagreement in the philosophy of art during the closing decades of the 20th century. Influential theorists include Judith Butler , Luce Irigaray , Julia Kristeva , Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida. The power of language, more specific of certain rhetorical tropes, in art history and historical discourse was explored by Hayden White . The fact That language is not a transparent medium of thought HAD beens Stressed by a very different form of philosophy of language qui originated in the works of Johann Georg Hamann and Wilhelm von Humboldt . [75] Ernst Gombrich and Nelson Goodman in his book Languages ​​of Art: An Approach to a Theory of SymbolsThe first encounter with the work of art in the 1960s and 1970s was the result of the work of art. [76] Roger Sperry, Nobel prize winner psychologist Roger Sperry, who maintained that the human visual encounter was not limited to work of art were equally defensible and demonstrable. Sperry’s view eventually prevails by the end of the 20th century with the aesthetic philosophers such as Nick Zangwill strongly defending a return to moderate aesthetic formalism among other alternatives. [77]

Classification disputes

Disputes as to whether or not to classify something as a work of art are referred to as classificatory disputes about art. Classificatory disputes in the 20th century have included cubist and impressionist paintings, Duchamp ‘s Fountain , the movies, superlative imitations of banknotes , conceptual art , and video games . [79]Philosopher David Novitz has argued that the question of the definition of art is rarely the heart of the problem. Rather, “the passionate concerns and interests that humans vest in their social life” are “so much a part of all classificatory disputes about art” (Novitz, 1996). According to Novitz, classificatory disputes are more often disputes about societal values. For example, when the Daily Mail criticized Hirst’s and Emin’s work by arguing “For more than 1,000 years of age, we are in the middle of the future.” Hirst’s and Emin’s work. [80] In 1998, Arthur Danto , suggested a thought experiment, that “the status of an artifact of art work in the field of cultural practices is harder than its inherent physical or perceptible qualities.” Cultural interpretation (an art theory of some kind) is therefore constitutive of an object’s arthood. ” [81] [82]

Anti-art is a label for art that intentionally challenges the established parameters and values ​​of art; [83] it is term associated with Dadaism and Attributed To Marcel Duchamp just before World War I, [83] When He Was making art from found objects . [83] One of these, Fountain (1917), an ordinary urinal, has achieved considerable prominence and influence on art. [83] Anti-art is a feature of work by Situationist International , [84] the lo-fi Mail Art Movement, and the Young British Artists , [83]though it is a form still rejected by the Stuckists , [83] who describe themselves as anti-anti-art . [85] [86]

Value judgment

Somewhat in relation to the above, the word art is also used to apply judgments of value, as in such expressions as “that meal is a work of art” (the cook is an artist), or “the art of deception”, ( the highly attained level of skill of the deceiver is praised). It is this use of the word as a measure of high quality and high value that gives the term its flavor of subjectivity. Making judgments of value requires a basis for criticism. At the simplest level, a way to determine the impact of the artis deemed to be attractive or repulsive. The perception is always colored by experience, and is necessarily subjective, it is generally understood that what is not quite aesthetically pleasing can not be art. However, “good” art is not always or often aesthetically appealing to a majority of viewers. In other words, an artist’s motivation is not necessarily the pursuit of the aesthetic. Also, art often depicts terrible images made for social, moral, or thought-provoking reasons. For example, Francisco Goya’s painting depicting the Spanish shootings of the 3rd of May 1808 is a graphic depiction of a firing squad executing several pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific imagery demonstrates Goya’s keen artistic ability in composition and execution of social fitting and political outrage. Thus, the debate continues to be fashionable of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define ‘art’.

The assumption of new values ​​or the rebellion versus accepted notions of what is aesthetically superior to a competitor with a complete abandonment of the pursuit of what is aesthetically appealing. Indeed, the reverse is often true, that the revision of what is popularly understood as being aesthetically appealing for a re-invigoration of aesthetic sensibility, and a new appreciation for the standards of art itself. These methods are of the highest quality and the highest quality of life in the world. to strike some universal chord by the rarity of the skill of the artist or in their accurate reflection in what is termed thezeitgeist . Art is often intended to appeal to and connect with human emotion. It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. Artists express something so that their audience is aroused to some extent, but they do not have to do so consciously. Art may be considered an exploration of thehuman condition ; that is, what it is to be human. [87]