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Fine art

Fine art

In European academic traditions, fine art is art Developed Primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from Applied Art That Has to serve aussi Some practical function, Such As pottery gold MOST metalwork.

Historically, the arts were painting , sculpture , architecture , music , and poetry , with performing arts including theater and dance . [1] Today, the art forms, such as film , photography , video production / editing , design , sequential art , conceptual art , and printmaking . However, in some institutes of learning or museums, fine art and frequentlyfine arts (pl.), are associated with visual art forms. quote needed ]

One definition of fine art is “a visual art-have-been regarded to Primarily created for aesthetic and intellectual Purposes and Judged for ict beauty and meaningfulness, SPECIFICALLY, painting, sculpture, drawing, watercolor, graphics, and architecture.” [2] In that sense, there are conceptual differences between the fine arts and the applied arts . As Originally Conceived, and have Understood for much of the modern era, the perception of aesthetic qualities required is usually refined judgment Referred to as HAVING Good taste , qui Differentiated fine art from popular art and entertainment. [3]

The word “fine” does not so much reflect the quality of the artwork in question, but the purity of the discipline according to traditional Western European canons. citation needed ] This definition originally excluded the applied or decorative arts , and the products of what were considered as crafts . In contemporary practice, these distinctions and restrictions have become substantially meaningless, as the concept or intention of the artist is given primacy, regardless of the means through which this is expressed. quote needed ]


According to some writers the concept of a distinct category of fine art is an invention of the early modern period in the West. Larry Shiner in his The Invention of Art: A Cultural History(2003) locates the invention in the 18th century: “There was a traditional” system of the arts “in the West before the eighteenth century. A skilled artisan or practitioner, a work of art is the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts is integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war,” “the art of love,” and “the art of medicine.” [4] Similar ideas have been expressed by Paul Oskar Kristeller , Pierre Bourdieu and Terry Eagleton(eg The Ideology of the Aesthetic), though the point of invention is often placed earlier, in the Italian Renaissance .

Cultural perspectives

The separation of arts and crafts that often exists in Europe and the US is not shared by any other cultures. In Japanese aesthetics the activities of everyday life are depicted by integrating not only art with craft but man-made with nature. Traditional Chinese art distinguished Within Chinese painting entre les mostly landscape literati painting of scholar gentlemen and the craftsmen of the schools of court painting and sculpture. A high status was also given in the West, in particular ceramics, jade carving , weaving, and embroidery. Latin American artwas dominated by European colonialism until the 20th-century, when indigenous art began to reassert itself by the Constructivist Movement , which reunited arts and crafts based on socialist principles.

Visual arts

Two-dimensional works

Painting and drawing

Main articles: Painting and Drawing

Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms of the visual arts. Common instruments include graphite pencils , pen and ink , inked brushes , wax color pencils , pencils , charcoals , chalk , pastels , markers , stylus , or various metals like silverpoint . There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning . Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as ” doodling ” and other informal types of drawing such as drawing in the fog a showerleaves on a bathroom mirror , or the surrealist method of ” entopic graphomania “, in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may not be considered part of “drawing” as a “fine art.”


Mosaics are pictures formed with small pieces of stone or glass, called tesserae . They can be decorative or functional. An artist who designs and makes mosaics is called a mosaic artist or a mosaicist.


Printmaking is the process of making artwork by printing , normally on paper . Except in the case of monotyping , the process is capable of producing multiple of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print is considered an original, as opposed to a copy. The reasoning behind this is that the print is not a reproduction of another work of art in a different medium – for instance, a painting – but rather an image conceived from inception as a print. An individual print is also referred to as an impression. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix . Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving goldetching ; stone, used for lithography ; blocks of wood for woodcuts , linoleum for linocuts and fabric in the case of screen-printing . But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Multiple nearly identical prints can be called an edition . In modern times each print is often signed and numbered forming a “limited edition.” Prints may also be published in book form, as artists’ books . A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques.


Calligraphy is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering [5] A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is “the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner”. [5] Modern calligraphy of functional hand-lettered inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not be compromised the legibility of the letters. [5] Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, improvised at the time of writing [6] [7] [8]


Fine art photography refers to photographs that are created to fulfill the creative vision of the artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism and commercial photography. Photojournalism visually communicates stories and ideas, mainly in print and digital media. Fine art photography is created primarily as an expression of the artist’s vision, but has also been important in advancing certain causes. The work of Ansel Adams in Yosemite and Yellowstone provides an example. Adams is one of the most widely recognized fine art photographers of the 20th century and is an avid promoter of conservation. While his primary focus is on photography as artSierra Nevada and helped to build political support for their protection.

Three-dimensional works


Architecture is frequently considered a fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted – in contrast to structural-engineering or construction-managementcomponents. Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily for their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are important links in public consciousness, even when scholarshave discovered much about past civilizations through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with, and are known by, their architectural monuments. [9]


One field where “fine” remains a valid technical term is pottery , especially in archeology . “Fine wares” are high-quality pottery, often painted, molded or otherwise decorated, and in many other forms of “coarse” wares, which are basic utilitarian pots used by the mass of the population, or in the kitchen rather than for more formal purposes.


Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard gold plastic material, commonly stone ( or rock or marble ), metal , or wood . Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired , welded , molded , or cast . Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be molded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts . The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in aGarden setting can be referred to as a sculpture garden .

Conceptual art

Conceptual art is art in which the concept (s) or idea (s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s Referred to a strict and Focused practice of idea-based art That Defied Often traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in ict presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular use, particularly in the UK , has been developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practice the traditional skills of painting and sculpture . [10]

Performing arts


Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic, and to music, [11] used as a form of expression , social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. Dance est used to describe methods of nonverbal communication (see body language ) entre humans or animals ( bee dance , patterns of behavior Such As a mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind) , and certain musical genres . In sports, gymnastics, figure skatingand synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while the Katas of the martial arts are often compared to dances.


Modern Western Theater is dominated by realism , including drama and comedy . Another popular western form is musical theater . Classical forms of theater, including Greek and Roman drama , classic English drama ( Shakespeare and Marlowe included), and French theater ( Molière included), are still performed today. In addition, performances of classic Eastern forms such as Noh and Kabuki can be found in the West, though with less frequency.


Main articles: Film and Art movie

Fine arts film is a term that includes motion pictures and the field of film as a fine art form. A fine arts movie theater is coming, usually a building, for viewing such movies. Movies are produced by recording images from the world with cameras , or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects . Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures , which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for education- indoctrinating gold – citizens. The visual elements of cinema give a universal power of communication. Some movies Have Become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles That translate the dialogue.

Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices When recording photographic image for the cinema . It is closely related to the art of still photography , though many additional issues arise from both the camera and the elements of the scene may be in motion.

Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood , or other major studio systems . An independent film (gold indie film) is a film premiered without financing or distribution from a major movie studio . Creative, business, and political reasons all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.


  • Avant-garde music is frequently considered both a performing art and a fine art.
  • Electronic Media -perhaps the newest medium for fine art, since it utilizes modern technologies as well as computers from production to presentation. Includes, among others, video, digital photography, digital printmaking and interactive pieces.
  • Textiles , including quilt art and “wearable” or “pre-wearable” creations, frequently reaching the category of fine art objects, sometimes like part of an art display.
  • Western art (or Classical) music is a performing art frequently considered to be fine art.

Academic study

See also: List of art schools


  • Fine Art Schools, Colleges and Universities in Africa
  • South Africa


  • Kyoto City University of Arts, Japan Offers graduate degrees in Painting, Printmaking, Concept and Media Planning, Sculpture, and Design (Visual, Environmental, Product), Crafts (Ceramics, Dying and Weaving, and Urushi Lacquering); also the Science of Art and Conservation.
  • Tokyo University of the Arts The art school offers graduate degrees in Painting (Japanese and Oil), Sculpture, Crafts, Design, Architecture, Intermedia Art, Aesthetics and Art History. The music and movie schools are separate.
  • Korean National University Music, Drama, Dance, Film, Traditional Arts (Korean Music, Dance and Performing Arts), Design, Architecture, Art Theory, Visual Arts Dept. of Fine Arts (painting, sculpture, photography, 3D holography laser, Video, interactivity, pottery and glass)
  • The Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts is a Chinese national university based in Guangzhou, with whom you have a degree in Fine Arts and Design.
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata is a Fine Art college in the Indian city of Kolkata, West Bengal.


Main article: List of art universities and colleges in Europe

South America

  • Brazil: The Institute for the Arts in Brazilia has departments for theater, visual arts, industrial design, and music. [12]

United States

In the United States a fine art degree may include the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, or a Bachelor of Fine Arts , and / or a Master of Fine Arts degree – traditionally the terminal degree in the field. Doctor of Fine Arts degrees -earned, as opposed to honorary degrees – have begun to emerge at some US academic institutions, however. Major schools of art in the US:

  1. Yale University , New Haven, CT – MFA in Painting, printmaking, sculpture, photography, and graphic design. An interdisciplinary degree in film is also offered. The BA in art includes the same areas of study, plus drawing. [13]
  2. Rhode Island School of Design , Providence, RI – MFA in Ceramics, Glass, Jewelry + Metalsmithing, Painting, Photography, Printmaking, Sculpture, Textiles; BFA in Film / Animation / Video, Illustration [14]
  3. School of the Art Institute of Chicago , Chicago, IL – MFA in Studio, MFA in Writing [15]
  4. University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles, CA – MFA in Ceramics, Interdisciplinary Studio, New Genres, Painting and Drawing, Photography, and Sculpture [16]
  5. California Institute of the Arts , Valencia, CA [17]
  6. Carnegie Mellon University , Pittsburgh, PA [18]
  7. Cranbrook Academy of Art , Bloomfield Hills, MI [19]
  8. Maryland Institute College of Art , Baltimore, MD [20]
  9. Fordham University , New York, NY – An innovative partnership between Alvin Ailey’s American Dance Theater and Fordham University, the Ailey / Fordham Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) degree combines liberal arts and liberal arts education with a 4-year program. Students complete a diverse curriculum while attending both institutions full-time. [21]
  10. Columbia University , New York, NY – The School of the Arts at Columbia University offers MFA degrees in Film, Theater Arts, Visual Arts and Writing, an MA degree in Film Studies, has joined JD / MFA degree in Theater Management & Producing, and PhD degree in Theater History, Literature and Theory. [22]
  11. Juilliard School , New York, NY – is a performing arts conservatory established in 1905 it trains and trains undergraduate and graduate students in dance, drama, and music. It is widely regarded as one of the world’s leading music schools, with some of the most prestigious arts programs. [23] [24] [25]


  1. Jump up^ The Gutenberg Project EBook of Encyclopædia Britannica . 10 (11 ed.). 1911.
  2. Jump up^ “Fine art | Define Fine art at Dictionary.com” . Dictionary.reference.com . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  3. Jump up^ “Aesthetic Judgment” . The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 22 July 2010.
  4. Jump up^ Clowney, David. “A Third System of the Arts An Exploration of Some Ideas from Larry Shiner’s? The Invention of Art: A Cultural History ” . Contemporary Aesthetics . Retrieved May 7, 2013 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:c Mediavilla, C. (1996). Calligraphy . Scirpus Publications.
  6. Jump up^ Pott, G. (2006). Kalligrafie: Intensive Training . Verlag Hermann Schmidt Mainz.
  7. Jump up^ Pott, G. (2005). Kalligrafie: Erste Hilfe und Schrift Training with Muster Alphabeten . Verlag Hermann Schmidt Mainz.
  8. Jump up^ * Zapf, H. (2007). Alphabet Stories: A Chronicle of Technical Developments . Rochester: Cary Graphic Arts Press.
  9. Jump up^ TheTower Bridge, theEiffel Towerand theColosseumare representative of the buildings we used advertising brochures.
  10. Jump up^ Conceptual art Tate online glossarytate.org.uk. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  11. Jump up^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. “britannica” . britannica . Retrieved 2010-05-18 .
  12. Jump up^ “Institute for the Arts, Brazilia” .
  13. Jump up^ “Yale University School of Art” . Art.yale.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  14. Jump up^ “RISD Division of Fine Arts” . Risd.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  15. Jump up^ “School of the Art Institute of Chicago” . Saic.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  16. Jump up^ “UCLA Department of Art” . Art.ucla.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  17. Jump up^ “California Institute of the Arts Programs” . Calarts.edu. 2013-12-20 . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  18. Jump up^ “Carnegie Mellon College of Fine Arts” . .cfa.cmu.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  19. Jump up^ “Welcome to Cranbrook Academy of Art” . Cranbrookart.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  20. Jump up^ “Maryland Institute College of Art” . Mica.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  21. Jump up^ “BFA Program” . The Ailey School .
  22. Jump up^ “Columbia University School of the Arts” . Arts.columbia.edu . Retrieved 2014-03-13 .
  23. Jump up^ “Still ‘best reputation’ for Juilliard at 100” . The Washington Times . Retrieved September 15, 2013 .
  24. Jump up^ Frank Rich (2003). Juilliard . Harry N. Abrams. p. 10. ISBN  0810935368. Juilliard grew up with both the country and its burgeoning cultural capital of New York to become an internationally recognized synonym for the pinnacle of artistic achievement.
  25. Jump up^ “The Top 25 Drama Schools in the World” . The Hollywood Reporter . Retrieved September 15, 2013 .