Roland L. Fischer (1915 in Budapest , Hungary – 1997 in Majorca , Spain  ) was an experimental psychiatrist and psychopharmacologist known for his early work on schizophrenia, the perception-hallucination continuum model of altered states of consciousness , and for his work one tasting qui later Contributed to research Supporting supertasting .  : 226  : 9  Fischer was formerly professor of experimental psychiatry and associate professor of pharmacology at Ohio State University (1958-1971), and also held academic posts at George Washington University, Georgetown, and Johns Hopkins University.  : 13, 259-260
Life and career
Fischer was born in Budapest in 1915. Six months before the start of World War II in 1939, Fischer left Hungary to study chemistry at the University of Basel in Switzerland , where he received his Ph.D. in 1945.  [7 ] ] Fischer Was active entre 1951 and 1977 and Was the author of more than 350 publications.  : 259  In the 1970s, Fischer was a lecturer in pharmacology at the George Washington University Medical School and the Johns Hopkins Medical School and an editor for the Journal of Altered States of Consciousness. At this time, his interests involved biofeedback and EEG research on different states of consciousness.  In 1977, he retired to the island of Majorca where he died in 1997. In gratitude for the opportunities for engaging in teaching and research offered by the University of the Balearic Islands, he donated his personal collection of books to the library of the University of the Balearic Islands.  
Model psychosis hypothesis
Like German chemist Kurt Beringer (1893-1949) before him, Fischer began to look for an explanatory model of psychosis for schizophrenia in the late 1940s by comparing it to altered states produced by hallucinogens.  : 226 In the 1950s, Fischer studied schizophrenia as a research biochemist at the University of Saskatchewan.  Fischer explored the hypothetical model of hypothesis of altered drug states by Beringer in 1927. Fischer and other researchers wondered if LSD could act as a chemical model for schizophrenia . However, both biochemical research progressed over time and the evidence of both substance-induced psychosisand organic psychosis are remarkably different.
In the 1960s, he is a proponent of the relationship between prop (6- n -propylthiouracil) and food relations, and its relationship to alcohol use and smoking.  His early work in science contributed to later research on supertasting. 
Between 1968 and the late 1980s, Fischer developed a model for altered states of consciousness in several stages known as the perception-hallucination continuum. On the continuum were ecstatic states , such as mystical rapture , separated by hyperaroused and hallucinatory states that schizophrenics might experience, followed by an aroused state, such as during creativity . Normal consciousness resides in the middle of the continuum. On the other end are the hypoaroused states, Such As Those Experienced During samadhi , separated by tranquil states, for example During Zen Meditation .   
- Fischer, RL (1966), The Realities of Hallucinogenic Drugs: A Compendium. Criminology 4: 2-15. doi : 10.1111 / j.1745-9125.1966.tb00153.x
- Fischer, R. (1971, November 26). A Cartography of the Ecstatic and Meditative States . Science . 174 (4012), 897-904.
- Fischer, R. (1971). Gustatory, behavioral, and pharmacological manifestations of chemoreception in man. In Ohloff, G. and Thomas, AF (Ed.), Gustation and Olfaction . New York: Academic Press. pp. 187-237. ISBN 0125249500 .
- Fischer, R. (1992). A Cartography of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive States of Consciousness. Anthropology of Consciousness 3: 3-13. doi : 10.1525 / ac.1992.3.3-4.3
- ^ Jump up to:a b http://biblioteca.uib.cat/oferta/biblioteques/son_lledo/roland_fischer/
- Jump up^ Lopez, Shane J. (2011). The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1444357921.
- Jump up^ Slattery, D. (2008). VR and hallucination: a technoetic perspective. Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research6 (1): 3-18. doi:10.1386 / tear.6.1.3_1
- Jump up^ Duffy, Valerie B .; Peterson, Julie M .; Dinehart, Mary E .; Bartoshuk, Linda M. (December 2003). Genetic and Environmental Variation in Taste: Associations with Sweet Intensity, Preference, and Intake. Topics in Clinical Nutrition18 (4): 209-220.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Pinta, Emil R. (1994). A History of Psychiatry at The Ohio State University, 1847-1993 . Ohio State University. ISBN 0963856405 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Fischer, A. (1994). Repetition . Gunter Narr Verlag. ISBN 3823346822 .
- ^ Jump up to:a Laughlin B , C. (Winter, 1991). Profile in Research: Roland Fischer . Neuroanthropology Network Newsletter . Carleton University. 4 (1).
- Jump up^ Erowid References Database
- Jump up^ According to his friend Paul A. Fabry in his self-published bookDetours: The Art Of Uncommon Travel(2004). SeeISBN 1418422142. The claim is is not the same as that of Fischer was born in 1915 and was reported in New Orleans by the founder of theWorld Trade Center. Except for Fabry, there are no other English Fischer ‘s sources, Fischer’ s death, they can appear in the German, Hungarian or Spanish language.
- Jump up^ Langlitz, Nicolas David. (2007). Neuropsychedelia. The Revival of Hallucinogen Research since the Decade of the Brain . University of California, Berkeley. Doctoral dissertation. ISBN 9780549611417
- Jump up^ Osmond, Humphry (1956). Research on Schizophrenia. In HA Abramson (Ed.)Neuropharmacology. Transactions of the 2nd Conference, May 25-27, 1955. Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation. New York. p. 183.
- Jump up^ Stricker, EM; Woods, S. (2004). Neurobiology of Food and Fluid Intake. Springer. ISBN 0-306-48484-6.
- Jump up^ Prescott, J .; Tepper, Beverly J. (2004). Genetic Variation in Taste Sensitivity. CRC Press. ISBN 0203023439.
- Jump up^ Connolly, Peter (2000). Roland Fischer’s Cartography of Ecstatic and Mystical States: A Reappraisal. Transpersonal Psychology Review4 (2): 4-16. ISSN 1366-6991
- Jump up^ Kokoszka, Andrzej (2007). States of Consciousness: Models for Psychology and Psychotherapy Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy. Springer. ISBN 0-387-32757-6.
- Jump up^ Blom, Jan Dirk (2010). Dictionary of Hallucinations. Springer. ISBN 1-4419-1236-3.