Plagiarism is the “wrongful appropriation” and “stealing and publication” of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work . [1] [2]

Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics . It is subject to penalties like penalties, suspension, and even expulsion . Recently, cases of “extreme plagiarism” have been identified in academia. [3] The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerging in Europe in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement .

Plagiarism is not a crime , but can constitute copyright infringement . In academia and industry, it is a serious ethical offense. [4] [5] Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, purpose They Are not equivalent concepts, And Many kinds of plagiarism do not Constitute copyright infringement, qui est defined by copyright law and May be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism is not defined or punished by law, but rather by institutions (including professional associations, educational institutions, and commercial entities, such as publishing companies).


In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally “kidnapping”) to denote stealing someone else’s work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martial , who complained that another poet had “kidnapped his verses”. Plagiarism , a derivative of plagiarus , was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft. [4] [6]

The derived form plagiarism Was Introduced into English around 1620. [7] The Latin Plagiarius , “kidnap” and plagium , “kidnapping”, the root-have plaga ( “snare”, “Net”), based on the Indo-European root * -plak , “to weave” (seen for instance in Greek plekein , Bulgarian “плета” pleta , and Latin plectere , all meaning “to weave”).

Legal aspects

ALTHOUGH plagiarism In Some contexts is regarded theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, ALTHOUGH the use of someone else’s work in order to gain academic credit meet May Some legal definitions of fraud . [8] “Plagiarism” is specifically mentioned in any current statute, either criminal or civil . [9] [5] Some cases may be treated as unfair competition or a violation of the doctrine of moral rights . [5] The availability of copyrighted material due to the development of information technology [citation needed ]In short, people are Asked to use the guideline, “if You Did not write it yourself, you must give credit”. [10]

Plagiarism is not the same as copyright infringement . Whereas, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship are generally accepted. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, where the material is used. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unification of the author’s reputation, or the achievement of academic credit, which is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist’s audience (for example, a reader, listener, or teacher).

Plagiarism is also considered to be of a general nature (for example, the plagiarist’s publisher, employer, or teacher). In such cases, acts of plagiarism may also be part of a claim for breach of contract, or, if knowingly, for a civil wrong .

In academia and journalism

Within academia , scholarships, professors, or researchers are considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censorship, up to and including expulsion . Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with full guidance, clearly written courses, and clearly articulated honor codes citation needed ] . Indeed, there is a uniform uniform understanding among college students that is plagiarism is wrong citation needed ]. However, the practice of making use of the word “misuse” in their schoolwork. ” [11] However, the practice of plagiarizing the use of substitutes for elude detection software, known as rogeting , has Rapidly evolving as students and unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software. [12]

An extreme form of plagiarism, Known As contract cheating Involves students paying someone else, Such As an essay mill , to do Their work for ’em. [8]

In journalism , plagiarism is regarded a breach of journalistic ethics , and reporters caught plagiarizing Typically face disciplinary Measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment citation needed ] . Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic journals or contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate quote . While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet , where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. [13]

The following is an understanding of the importance of academic achievement in the field of learning. [14]

For Professors and Researchers, Plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity. [15] [16] Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are generally heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors agree to be bound. [17] Plagiarism is a common reason for academic research papers to be retracted. [18]


No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists [19] ; However, this section provides several definitions for the most common features of academic plagiarism.

According to Bela Gipp [20] academic plagiarism encompasses:

“The use of ideas, concepts, words, or structures
without appropriately acknowledging the source
to benefit in a setting where originality is expected.” [20]

The definition by B. Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman’s definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism. [21] According to T. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone:

  1. Uses words, ideas, or work products
  2. Attributable to another identifiable person or source
  3. Without attributing it to the source of it
  4. In a situation where there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship
  5. In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary [21]

In addition, it is defined between institutions of higher learning and universities:

  • Stanford sees plagiarism as a “source” of the author’s original workmanship, if such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form. ” [22]
  • Yale views plagiarism as the “… use of another’s work, words, or ideas without attribution,” which includes “… using a source of language without quoting, using information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close to the original. ” [23]
  • Princeton perceives plagiarism as the “deliberate” use of “someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.” [24]
  • Oxford College of Emory University typifies plagiarism as the use of “a writer’s ideas or phraseology without giving credit.” [25]
  • Brown defines plagiarism as “… appropriating another person’s ideas or words (spoken or written) without attributing those words or ideas to their true source.” [26]
  • The US Naval Academy defines plagiarism as “the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper quotation.” [27]

Common forms of student plagiarism

According to “The Reality and Solution of Plagiarism College” [28] [ better source needed ] created by the Health Informatics Department of the University of Illinois at Chicago there are 10 main forms of plagiarism that students commit:

  1. Submitting someone’s work as their own.
  2. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.
  3. Re-writing someone’s work without properly citing sources.
  4. Using quotations, but not citing the source.
  5. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing.
  6. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited.
  7. Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece.
  8. Providing proper quotes, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas.
  9. Inaccurately quoting the source.
  10. Relying too heavily on other people’s work. Fails to bring original thought into the text.

Sanctions for student plagiarism

In the academic world, the subject is generally considered to be very serious, but it is also a result of the failure of the institution, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution citation needed ] . Generally, the punishment increases as a higher education institutions citation needed ]. The plagiarism of the academic world may be more important than that of plagiarism. A 2015 study showed that students who are new to university studies have a strong understanding of the subject, and that they are very confident that they understand what referencing and plagiarism are. [29] The same students also had a view of how plagiarism should be penalized.

For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (eg, purchasing an assignment), suspension or expulsion may occur. [30] There has been some concern about inconsistencies in penalties for university student plagiarism, and a plagiarism was made in 2008 for UK higher education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization of approaches. [31]

However, to impose sanctions, plagiarism needs to be detected. Strategies faculty members to detect plagiarism. [32] Teachers do not use detection methods such as text-matching software. [33] While the latter method may be particularly effective in detecting plagiarism, especially when plagiarism is needed. [33]

Criminal and negative behavior by diploma mills

There are allegations that some diploma mills discuss ] take students’ money for essays, then produce a low standard test. Students then have a little time to provide an essay before a deadline. Also diploma mills have allegedly been more likely than not to be pregnant . Sorana Vieru of the NUS Said, “We would urge Those Who are Struggling to seek the support through Their unions and universities Rather than looking to a quick fix, and be aware That using thesis websites Could cost not only money order jeopardise Their qualifications.” [ 34]

Plagiarism education

The results of the study of plagiarism have been studied by the author. [35] [36] [37] This is especially important when students move to a new institution. [38] Indeed, given the seriousness of plagiarism accusations for a student’s future, the pedagogy of plagiarism may be considered to be of great importance to the pedagogy of the discipline being studied. [35] The need for educational plagiarism extends to academic staff, who may not fully understand what is expected of their students or the consequences of misconduct.[39] [32]

Factors influencing student’s decision to plagiarize

Several studies investigated factors that influence the decision to plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from the United Kingdom and the United States of America. [40] It has been argued that the plagiarizing students cope with the negative consequences that result from academic procrastination such as poor grades. Another study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to plagiarize. [41] When students had expected higher penalties and when they had internalized social norms, they were very likely to be plagiarism.

Methods of preventing plagiarism

“Planning your paper:

  • Consult with your instructor
  • plan your paper
  • take effective notes

Writing your paper:

  • when in doubt, quotes sources.
  • make it clear who said what
  • know how to paraphrase
  • analyze and evaluate your sources ” [42]


Since journalism relies on the public trust, a reporter has failed to honestly acknowledge their credibility. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while being investigated by the news organization. [43]


See also: Duplicate publication

The reuse of significant, identical, or similar parts of one’s own workmanship is one of the most important aspects of self-plagiarism; the term “recycling fraud” has been used. [44] Articles of this nature are often referred to as duplicate or multiple publication . In addition there may be a copyright issue Self-plagiarism is considered to be a serious ethical issue in which the author assumes that publication is of new material, such as in publishing or factual documentation. [45] It does not apply to public-interest texts, such as social, professional, and cultural.

In academic fields, self-plagiarism occurs when authoring portions of their own published work, but without attributing the previous publication. [46] [47] Identifying self-plagiarism is Often difficulty Because limited reuse of material is accepted Both Legally (as fair use ) and Ethically. [48]

A contested definition

Miguel Roig has written about the subject of self-plagiarism [47] [49] [50] [51] and his definition of self-plagiarism is widely accepted among scholars of the topic. However, the “self-plagiarism” has been challenged as being self-contradictory, an oxymoron , [52] and other grounds. [53]

For example, Stephanie J. Bird [54] argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others’ material. Bird identifies the ethical issues of “self-plagiarism” as those of “dual or redundant publication.” She also notes that in an educational context, “self-plagiarism” refers to the case of a student who resubmits “the same essay for credit in two different races.” As David B. Resnik clarifies, “Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft.” [55]

According to Patrick M. Scanlon [56]

“Self-plagiarism” is a term with some specialized currency. Most prominently, it is used in discussions of research and publishing integrity in biomedicine, where heavy publish-or-perish requests for a rash of duplicate and “salami-slicing” publication, the reporting of a single study’s results in ” least publishable units “within multiple articles” (Blancett, Flanagin, & Young, 1995, Jefferson, 1998, Kassirer & Angell, 1995, Lowe, 2003, McCarthy, 1993, Schein & Paladugu, 2001, Wheeler, 1989). Roig (2002) offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: partitioning of one study into multiple publications, often called salami-slicing; text recycling; and copyright infringement.

Codes of ethics

Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the Journal of International Business Studies . [57] Some professional organizations like the Association for Computing Machinery(ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism. [58]Other organizations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism such as the American Political Science Association (APSA). The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as “… deliberate appropriation of the works of others as one’s own.” It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published in its entirety, the author is not obligatory under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins. [59] The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) also publishes a code of ethics that says: “Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions,” but it makes no reference to self-plagiarism. [60]

Factors that justify reuse

Pamela Samuelson , in 1994, identified several factors she said excuse reuse of one’s previously published work, that make it not self-plagiarism. [48] She discusses each of these factors specifically to the ethical issue of self-plagiarism, as distinct from the legal issue of the use of copyright, which she deals with separately. Among other factors that may excuse from previously published material Samuelson lists the following:

  1. The previous work must be restated to the groundwork for a new contribution in the second work.
  2. Portions of the previous work must be repeated with new evidence or arguments.
  3. The audience for each work is so different that publishing is necessary to get the message out.
  4. The author thinks they said it was a second time.

Samuelson states she has relied on the “different audience” when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. She says: “There are often paragraphs or sequences that can be lifted from one article to the other. And, in truth, I lift them.” She refers to her own practice of converting “a technical article into a law” and “a section” for a different audience. [48]

Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. [48] She also states “Although it is possible for self-plagiarism cases, copyright infringement claims would not be successful.” works. ” [48]

Organizational publications

Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works. For example, the American Historical Association ‘s “Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct” (2005), which are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater extent of dependence on other works. [61]However, even such a book does not make use of words, phrases, or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the other text’s arrangement and organization, and the authors of such texts are also expected to “acknowledge the sources of recent or distinctive findings. and interpretations, those not yet a part of the common understanding of the profession. ” [61]

In the arts

LHOOQ (1919), one of Marcel Duchamp ‘s readymades .

The history of the arts

Throughout the history of literature and the arts in general, works of art are for a large part repetitions of the tradition ; to the Entire history of artistic creativity belong plagiarism, literary theft, appropriation , incorporation, retelling, rewriting, recapitulation, revision, recovery, thematic variation , ironic retake, parody , imitation, stylistic theft, pastiche , collage , deliberate and assemblies . [62] [63] [9] [64] [65] [66]There is no rigorous and precise distinction between practices like imitation, stylistic plagiarism, copy , replica and forgery . [62] [67] [68] [69] These appropriation procedures are the main axis of a literate culture, in which the tradition of the canonic past is being constantly rewritten. [66]

Ruth Graham Quotes TS Eliot – “Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal. Bad poets deface what they take.” – she notes that despite the “taboo” of plagiarism, the ill-will and embarrassment it causes in the modern context, it seems for often the excesses of historic literary offenders. [70]

Praisings of artistic plagiarism

A passage of Laurence Sterne’s 1767 Tristram Shandy condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism. [71] Oliver Goldsmith commented:

Sterne’s Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, have been so long thought, was, in fact, the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time, that the materials of the world are so high, that they are so highly polite Consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form. [72]

In other contexts

On the Internet

Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism, [73] [74 [7] and there are a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of plagiarism That Involve copyright violation May be Addressed by the rightful owners happy sending a DMCA removal notice to the offending website-owner, or to the ISP That Is Hosting the offending site. The term “content scraping” has arisen to describe the copying and pasting of information from websites [75] and blogs. [76]