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Morphological box

Morphological box

Morphological analysis was designed for multi-dimensional, non-quantifiable problems where causal modeling and simulation do not work well. Fritz Zwicky developed this approach to seemingly non-reducible complexity (Zwicky, 1966, 1969). Ritchey (2002), the system of reducing the risk of harm by the elimination of a grid box.

References in fiction

Robert A. Heinlein has his characters at “Zwicky box” in Time Enough for Love , to figure out what’s available to break the boredom of his 2000-year-old character.

David Brin used “Zwicky Choice Boxes” in Sundiver as a murder mystery.


  • Ritchey, Tom (2002). General Morphological Analysis: A general method for non-quantified modeling.
  • Zwicky, F., Discovery, Invention, Research – Through the Morphological Approach, Toronto: The Macmillan Company (1969).
  • Zwicky, F. & Wilson A. (eds.), New Methods of Thought and Procedure: Contributions to the Symposium on Methodologies. Berlin: Springer (1967).