An epiphany (from the ancient Greek ἐπιφάνεια, epiphaneia , “manifestation, striking appearance”) is an experience of sudden and striking realization. Generally the term is used to describe scientific breakthroughs, but it is possible to apply them to a situation in a particular situation. Epiphanies are studied by psychologists   and other scholars, particularly those attempting to study the process of innovation .   
Epiphanies are relatively rare occurrences and generally follow a process of significant thought about a problem. They are triggered by a new piece of information, but importantly, a depth of prior knowledge is required to allow the leap of understanding.     Famous epiphanies include Archimedes ‘ discovery of a method of determining the density of an object (” Eureka !”) And Isaac Newton’s realization that a falling apple and the orbiting moon are both pulled by the same force.   
The word epiphany originally referred to insight through the divine .   Today, this concept is more often used without such connotations, but a popular implication remains that the epiphany is supernatural , as the discovery seems to come suddenly from the outside. 
The word’s secular use may be much more of its popularity to Irish novelist James Joyce . The Joycean epiphany has been defined as “a sudden spiritual manifestation, whether from some object, scene, event, or memorable phase of the mind – the manifestation being out of proportion to the significance or just relevance of it.”  The author used epiphany as a literary device in its entry story Dubliners (1914); his protagonists came to sudden recognitions that changed their view of themselves and / or their social conditions. Joyce had first expounded on epiphany’s meaning in the Stephen Hero fragment ,This is only published posthumously in 1944. For the philosopher Emmanuel Levinas, epiphany or a manifestation of the divine is seen in another’s face (see face-to-face ).
In traditional and pre-modern cultures, initiation rites and mystery religions have served as vehicles of epiphany, as well as the arts. The Greek dramatists and poets would, in the ideal, induct the audience into states of catharsis or kenosis , respectively. In modern times an epiphany lies behind the title of William Burroughs ‘ Naked Lunch , a drug-influenced state, as Burroughs Explained, “a frozen moment everyone Sees When what is at the end of the fork.” Both the Dadaist Marcel Duchamp and the Pop Artist Andy WarholWould invert expectations by presenting commonplace objects or graphics as works of fine art (for example a urinal as a fountain ), simply by presenting em in a way no one thought HAD to do before; the result was intended to be an epiphany of “what art is” or is not.
Epiphanies can be found in many different forms, and are often generated by a complex combination of experience, memory, knowledge, predisposition and context. A contemporary example of an epiphany in education might involve the process by which a student arrives at some form of new insight or clarifying thought.  Despite this popular image, epiphany is the result of significant work on the part of the discoverer, and is only the satisfying result of a long process.  The surprising and fulfilling feeling of epiphany is so surprising because it can not predict when it will bear fruit, and our subconscious can play a significant part in delivering the solution; and is fulfilling because it is a reward for a long period of effort.  
A common myth predicts that most, if not all, innovations occur through epiphanies.  Not all innovations occur through epiphanies; Scott Berkun notes that “the most useful way to think of an epiphany is an occasional bonus of working on tough problems”.  Most innovations occur without epiphany, and epiphanies often contribute to the next one.  Crucially, epiphany can not be predicted, or controlled. 
Although epiphanies are only a rare occurrence, a process of significant labor, there is a common myth that epiphanies of sudden understanding are commonly responsible for leaps in technology and the sciences.   Famous epiphanies include Archimedes’ realization of how to estimate the volume of a given mass, which inspired him to shout ” Eureka !” (“I have found it!”).  The biographies of many mathematicians and scientists include an epiphanic episode early in the career, the ramifications of which were worked out in detail over the following years. For example, allegedly Albert Einsteinwas made to a young child by being given a compass, and realizing that some unseen force in space was making it move. Another, perhaps better, example from Einstein’s life occurred in 1905 after Newton’s physics and Maxwell’s equations. While taking a streetcar home, he looked after him at the receding clocktower in Bernand realized that if the spider up close to the speed of light, he would see the clock slow down; with this thought, he later remarked, “a storm broke loose in my mind,” which would allow him to understand special relativity. Einstein had a second epiphany two years later in 1907 which he called “the happiest thought of my life” when he imagined an elevator falling, and realized that a passenger would not be able to tell the difference between the weightlessness of falling, and the weightlessness of space – a thought which allowed him to generalize his theory of relativity to include gravity as a curvature in spacetime. A similar flash of holistic understanding in a Prepared Mind Was Said to Give Charles Darwin his “hunch” (about natural selection), and Darwin later stated that he always remembered the spot in the road where he was struck by the epiphany struck. Another famous epiphany myth is associated with Isaac Newton’s apple story,  and yet another with Nikola Tesla’s discovery of a workable alternating current induction motor. Though such epiphanies may have occurred, they have been made rather than an out-of-the-blue.  
Another myth is that epiphany is simply another word for (usually spiritual) vision . Actually, realism and psychology make epiphany a different mode as distinguished from vision, even though both vision and epiphany are often triggered by (sometimes seemingly) irrelevant incidents or objects.  
In Christianity, the Epiphany refers to a realization that Christ is the Son of God. Western churches are celebrating the visit of the Magi as the revelation of the Incarnation of the infant Christ, and commemorating the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. Traditionally, Eastern churches, following the Julian rather than the Gregorian calendar, have celebrated Epiphany (gold Theophany ) in conjunction with Christ’s baptism by John the Baptist and celebrated on January 19; however, other Eastern churches have adopted the Western Calendar and celebrate it on January 6. Some Protestant churches often celebrate Epiphany as a season, extending from the last day of Christmas until Ash Wednesday , or the Feast of the Presentation on February 2.
In more general terms, the phrase “religious epiphany” is used when a person realizes his faith, or when he is convinced that he is convinced that he is convinced that he is convinced that he is a believer. In Hinduism, for example, epiphany might refer to Arjuna ‘s realization that Krishna (incarnation of God serving as his charioteer in the ” Bhagavad Gita “) is indeed representing the Universe. The Hindu term for epiphany would be bodhodaya , from Sanskrit bodha ‘wisdom’ and udaya ‘rising’. Or in Buddhism, the term can be found in the Buddha, under the bodhi tree, finally realizing the nature of the universe, and thus attaining Nirvana. The Zen term kensho also describes this moment, referring to the feeling of waiting for realizing the answer to a koan .
- Eureka effect
- Lateral thinking
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