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Creative industries

Creative industries

The creative industries refers to a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation of knowledge and information. They are variously also referred to as cultural industries (especially in Europe ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 : 14) or the creative economy ( Howkins 2001 ), and most recently they have denominated the Orange Economy in Latin America and the Caribbean ( Buitrago & Duque 2013 ).

Howkins’ creative economy including advertising , architecture , art , crafts , design , fashion , film , music , performing arts , publishing , R & D , software , toys and games , TV and radio , and video games ( Howkins 2001 , pp. 88-117 ). Some scholars consider that education industry, including public and private services, is forming a part of creative industry. [1]There remain, therefore, different definitions of the sector ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 , 12) ( DCMS 2006).

The creative industries-have-been seen To Become leading increasingly to economic well-being, proponents Suggesting That ” human creativity is the ultimate economic resource” ( Florida 2002 , p. Xiii), and That “the industries of the twenty-first century will depend on the generation of knowledge through creativity and innovation “( Landry & Bianchini 1995 : 4).


Various commentators have provided varying suggestions for the concept of “creative industries” ( DCMS 2001 : 04) ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 , 12) ( Howkins 2001 , pp. 88-117) ( UNCTAD 2008 , pp. 11-12), and the name itself has become controversial issue – with significant differences and overlap between the terms “creative industries”, “cultural industries” and “creative economy” ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 , pp. 11-14) ( UNCTAD 2008 , 12).

Lash and Urry suggests that each of the creative industries has an “irreducible core” concern with “the exchange of finance for intellectual property rights ,” ( Lash & Urry 1994 : 117). This echoes the UK Government Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)

“those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent, and a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property” ( DCMS 2001 , p.

As of 2015 DCMS definition of nine creative sectors , namely: [2]

  1. Advertising and marketing
  2. Architecture
  3. Crafts
  4. Design : product , graphic and fashion design
  5. movie , TV , video , radio and photography
  6. IT , software and computer services
  7. Publishing
  8. Museums , galleries and libraries
  9. Music , performing and visual arts

To this list John Howkins would add toys and games, including the much broader area of research and development in science and technology ( Howkins 2001 , pp. 88-117). It has been argued by whom? ] that gastronomy belongs in such a list. [3]

The various fields of engineering do not appear on this list, which is emerging from the DCMS reports. This is due, probably, to the fact that engineers occupy positions in “non-cultural” corporations, performing activities of project, management, operation, maintenance, risk analysis and supervision, among others. However, historically and presently, several tasks of engineers can be regarded as highly creative, inventive and innovative. The contribution of engineering is represented by new products, processes and services.

Hesmondhalgh reduces the list to the term “the core cultural industries” of advertising and marketing, broadcasting , film , internet and music industries, print and electronic publishing , and video and computer games . His definition only includes those industries that create “texts” or “cultural artifacts” and which engage in some form of industrial reproduction ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 , pp. 12-14).

The DCMS list has proven influential, and many other nations which? ] have formally adopted it. It has also been criticized. It has been argued by whom? ] that the division into dark sectors divides between business , non-profits, and larger businesses, and those who do not (eg, computer games). The inclusion of the ancient trade often comes into question, since it does not involve the production involved (except of reproductions and fakes). The inclusion of all computer services has also been questioned ( Hesmondhalgh 2002 : 13).

Some areas, Such As Hong Kong , shape-have preferred to Their policy around a Tighter Focus is copyright ownership in the value chain . They adopt the WIPO’s classifications, which divide up the creative industries according to their own interests.

The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has denominated them for Latin America and the Caribbean as the Orange Economy [4] which is defined as the “group of related activities” intellectual property. ”

Others who? ] have suggested a distinction between those industries that are open to mass production and distribution, and those that are primarily craft-based and are intended to be consumed in a particular place and moment ( visualization). arts , performing arts , cultural heritage).

How creative workers are counted

The DCMS classifies enterprises and occupations as the primary product, and what the worker does. Thus, a company which would be classified as belonging to the music industry , and a worker who plays piano would be classified as a musician .

The primary purpose of this is to quantify – for example it can be used to count the number of firms, and the number of workers, creatively employed in any given location, and hence to identify places with high concentrations of creative activities.

It leads to some complications which are not immediately obvious. For example, a security guard working for a music company would be classified as a creative employee, but not as creatively occupied.

The total number of creative employees is then calculated as the sum of:

  • All workers employed in creative industries, eg security guards, cleaners, accountants, managers, etc. working for a record company
  • All workers are creatively occupied, and are not employed in creative industries (for example, a piano teacher in a school). This includes people whose second job is creative, for example somebody who does weekend gigs , writes books, or produces artwork in their spare time

Properties or characteristics of creative industries

A toy cat produced in a South African township, made from used plastic bags and old wire

According to Caves (2000), creative industries are characterized by seven economic properties:

  1. Nobody knows principle .
  2. Art for art’s sake : Workers care about originality, technical professional skill, harmony, etc. of creative goods and are willing to settle for lower wages offered by ‘humdrum’ jobs.
  3. Motley crew principle : For relatively complex creative products (eg, films), the production requires diversely skilled inputs. Each skilled input must be present and perform at some minimum level to produce a valuable outcome.
  4. Infinite variety : Products are differentiated by quality and uniqueness; each product is a distinct combination of inputs leading to infinite variety options (eg, works of creative writing, poetry, novel, screenplays or otherwise).
  5. A list / B list : Skills are vertically differentiated. Artists are ranked on their skills, originality, and proficiency in creative processes and / or products. Small differences in skills and talent may yield huge differences in (financial) success.
  6. Time flies : When coordinating complex projects with diversely skilled inputs, time is of the essence.
  7. Ars longa : Some creative products have durability aspects that invoke copyright protection, allowing a creator or performer to collect rents.

The properties described by Caves have been criticized for being too rigid (Towse, 2000). Not all creative workers are purely driven by ‘art for art’s sake’. The ‘ars longa’ property also holds for certain noncreative products (ie, licensed products). The ‘time flies’ property also holds for large construction projects. Creative industries are therefore not unique, but they relate to these non-creative industries.

Difference from the ‘cultural industries’

There is often a question about the boundaries between creative industries and the similar term of cultural industries . Cultural industries are best described as an adjunct-sector of the creative industries. Cultural industries include industries That focus is cultural tourism and heritage , museums and libraries , sports and outdoor activities , and a variety of ‘Way of Life’ activities That arguably ranks from local pet shows to a host of hobbyistConcerns. Thus, cultural industries are more likely to provide other types of financial products. (See also cultural institutions studies .)

The creative class

Some authors, such as the American economist Richard Florida , argue for a broader focus on the products of knowledge workers , and judge the ‘ creative class ‘ (http://www.classifieds.com/).

Difference from the ‘knowledge industries’

The term creative industries begins to elide with knowledge economy and issues of intellectual property ownership in general.

The creative class and diversity

Florida’s focus leads to a particular attention to the nature of the creative workforce . In a study of why, it is important to point out that, in the United States, there is a need for creative producers, which argues that a high proportion of workers in the creative class provides a key input to creative production, which enterprises seek out. He seeks to establish the importance of diversity and multiculturalism in the cities concerned, for the existence of a public gay community, ethnic and religious diversity, and tolerance. ( Florida 2002 )

Economic contribution

Globally, Creative Industries, and other scientific research and development are included in the report. Estimates of the output Corresponding to scientific Research and Development suggest That year additional 4-9% might be Attributable to the sector if ict definition is extended to include Such activities, though the figures vary entre Significantly different countries.

Taking the UK as an example, in the context of other Sectors, the creative industries make a far more significant contribution to output than hospitality or utilities and deliver four times the output due to agriculture , fisheries and forestry . In terms of employment and DEPENDING on the definition of activities included, the sector is a major employer of entre 4-6% of the UK’s working population , though this is still less than Significantly employment due to traditional areas of work Such As retail and manufacturing .

Within the creative industries and taking over the UK as an example, the three largest sub-sectors are design , publishing , and television and radio . Together these accounts for around 75% of revenues and 50% of employment.

The complex supply chains in the creative industries sometimes make it difficult to calculate accurate figures for gross value added by each sub-sector. This is particularly the case for the service-focused sub-sectors such as advertising , it is more straightforward in product-focused sub-sectors such as crafts . Not surprisingly, perhaps, competition in product-focused areas tends to be more intense with a tendency to the production of the supply chain to become a commodity business .

There may be a tendency for public funded creative industries development services to inaccurately estimate the number of creative businesses during the mapping process. There is also imprecision in almost all tax codes that determines a person’s profession, since many creative people work in multiple roles and jobs. These topics should be treated with caution.

The creative industries in Europe make a significant contribution to the EU economy, creating about 3% of EU GDP – corresponding to an annual market value of € 500 billion – and employing about 6 million people. In addition, the sector plays a crucial role in fostering innovation, in particular for devices and networks. The EU records the second highest TV viewing figures globally, producing more films than any other region in the world. In that respect, the newly proposed ‘Creative Europe’ program (July 2011) [5]will help preserve cultural heritage while increasing the circulation of creative works inside and outside the EU. The program will play a leading role in stimulating cross border co-operation, promoting peer learning and making these sectors more professional. The Commission will then propose a financial instrument run by the European Investment Bank to provide debt and equity finance for cultural and creative industries. The role of the non-state actors in the governance regarding Medias will not be neglected anymore. Therefore, building a new approach is important for the development of a new generation of innovative technologies. and therefore of competitiveness and sustainability. It supposes to tailor the regulatory and institutional frameworks in supporting private-public collaboration, in particular in the media sector.[6] The EU is planning to develop clusters, financing instruments and support for this sector. The European Commission wishes to assist European creators and audiovisual enterprises to develop new markets through the use of digital technology, and asks how policy-making can best help achieve this. A more entrepreneurial culture will have a positive attitude toward risk-taking, and a capacity to innovate anticipating future trends. Creativity plays an important role in human resource management as creative artists can think laterally . Moreover, new jobs requiring new skills created in the post-crisis economy should be supported by labor mobility to ensure that their skills are needed.

In the US

In the introduction to a 2013 special issue of Work and occupations on the US workforce, the guest editors argue that by examining the work lives of artists, one can identify features conditions. Elizabeth Lingo and Steven Tepper cites multiple sources to suggest artists’ skill sets allow them to “work beyond existing markets and create new opportunities for themselves and others”. [7]Specifically, Lingo and Tepper are proposing “change and innovation” because they “face special challenges managing ambiguity, developing and sustaining a relative identity, and forming community in the context of an individually based enterprise economy” (2013). Because of these adaptive skills, the suggestion is that “studying how artists cope with uncertainty and the factors that influence their success should be relevant to understanding the social and economic differences facing today’s (and tomorrow’s) workforce.” [8]

This view of artist-as-change-agent changes the questions researchers ask of creative economies. Old research questions would focus on topics like “skills, work practices, contracts, differentiated wages, employment incentives, formal credentials, employment pipelines, and labor flows of differentiated occupational categories”. Examples of new questions include:

  1. How do artists create jobs in the labor market?
  2. What is their process of innovation and enterprise?
  3. What is the nature of their work and the resources they draw upon?
  4. How do different network structures produce different opportunities?
  5. How do you create and manage your creative life?
  6. How do creative workers broker and synthesize across occupational, gender, geographic, and industry boundaries to create new possibilities? (Tepper & Lingo, 2013) [9]

Wider role

Have Some first world countries struggle to compete in traditional markets Such As Manufacturing , Many now see the creative ace industries key component in a new knowledge economy , able Perhaps of Delivering urban regeneration , Often through initiatives linked to exploitation of cultural heritage That leads to increased tourism . It is often argued that, in the future, the ideas and imagination of countries like the United Kingdom will be their greatest asset; in support of this argument, a number of universities in the UK have started to offer creative entrepreneurshipas a specific area for study and research. Indeed, UK government figures reveal that the UK’s creative industries account for over a million jobs and brought in £ 112.5 billion to the UK economy (DCMS Creative Industries Mapping Document 2001), the data sets are open to these issues.

In recent years, creative industries have become more attractive to governments outside the developed world. [10] In 2005, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) High Level Panel on Creative Industries and Development commissioned several studies to identify challenges and opportunities facing the growth and development of creative industries in developing industries. As Cunningham et al.(2009) put it, the creation of the potential of new wealth creation, the cultivation of local talent and the generation of creative capital, the development of new export markets, significant multiplier effects across the broader economy, the use of information communication technologies and enhanced competitiveness in an increasingly global economy. A key driver of interest in creative industries and development is the recognition of the value of creative production, and the development of creative skills. Reflecting the growth interest in the potential of creative industries in developing countries,Dr. Mari Pangestu appointed as the first minister to hold the position.

See also

  • Cognitive-cultural economy
  • Creative industry in Brazil
  • Cultural industry
  • Entertainment industry
  • Imagination age , a conceptual incipient period in which creativity and imagination will become the primary creators of economic value
  • Publishing industry
  • Smart city
  • Creative services


  1. Jump up^ Kultur & Kommunikation for Nordic Innovation Center (2007),Creative Industries Education in the Nordic Countries; Mœglin, Pierre (2001), Educational Industries, Paris, Puf
  2. Jump up^ “Department for Culture, Media & Sport – Creative Industries Economic Estimates January 2015” (PDF) . gov.uk . January 13, 2015 . Retrieved 16 May 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ “Does cooking have a place in the Creative Economy and what role does Creative Leadership play in its production?”
  4. Jump up^ The Orange Economy: An Infinite Opportunity
  5. Jump up^ “Creative Europe”
  6. Jump up^ http://www.france24.com/en/20110625-economic-warfare-on-the-silver-screen-cinema-cannes-festival-2011-hollywood-francewith Violaine Hacker
  7. Jump up^ Lingo, Elizabeth L. and Tepper, Steven J (2013),’Looking Back, Looking Forward: Arts-Based Careers and Creative Work’, in Work and Occupations 40 (4) 337-363.
  8. Jump up^ Lingo, Elizabeth L. and Tepper, Steven J (2013),’Looking Back, Looking Forward: Arts-Based Careers and Creative Work’in Work and Occupations 40 (4) 337-363.
  9. Jump up^ Lingo, Elizabeth L. and Tepper, Steven J (2013),’Looking Back, Looking Forward: Arts-Based Careers and Creative Work’, in Work and Occupations 40 (4) 337-363.
  10. Jump up^ Cunningham, Stuart, Ryan, David Mark, Keane, Michael & Ordonez, Diego (2008), ‘Financing Creative Industries in Developing Countries’, in Diana Barrowclough and Zeljka Kozul-Wright eds,Creative Industries and Developing Countries: Voice , Choice and Economic Growth, “Routledge, London and New York, pp. 65-110.
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